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Book Reviews117 From Laurels and Rosemary one emerges, indeed, rather with the impression of two energetic, humorous, and valuable personalities; as writers they were money-earners, as people they enjoyed life fully and weighed in on the side of what they thought right and moving toward a better world. In accordance with the pattern of their day, they had twelve children and outlived all but two; they traveled widely on foot, by coach, and with high enthusiasm by railway, when that became possible. After her husband's death Mary Howitt still felt the new life of springtime after winter passed; it was in spring that she determined finally to become a Roman Catholic. Her niece exclaimed at the news, "There, another of my aunt's adventures!" Mrs. Lee has captured this quality of adventure in her pleasant book. Swarthmore College____________ Elizabeth Cox Wright Friends School, Wigton, Cumberhnd. Edited by David W. Reed. Published by the Wigton Old Scholars Association. 1954. 376 pages. £1/1. This is a fascinating book for all who are interested in the foundation and development of a Friends' school. Edited by a former Headmaster, the book combines material from two essays written earlier—in 1892 and in 1915—with new material covering the period 1915-1953. Thus we are permitted to see once again how the school was judged by contemporaries in the various stages of its development. In 1812 the Quarterly Meeting of Cumberland and Northumberland considered the establishment of a school in this remote corner of northern England to give a more guarded education to some thirty children and to teach "Reading, Writing and Arithmetic and English Grammar, with the addition of Needlework and Knitting for the girls." It is to be noted that from the beginning both boys and girls were to be admitted, though coeducation in the classroom was not actually practiced until 1882. After many preliminary negotiations the school opened on September 4, 1815, with nine boys and eight girls, but on December 18 there were fifteen boys and twelve girls, and in June, 1816, fifteen boys and fifteen girls—surely a unique situation of equality for those days! Many amusing and surprising items are revealed in the detailed accounts of all phases of school life. In 1817, for example, an item in the financial account was for ale and beer supplied to the workman making alterations to the first school building. The additional note is made that in 1936, on completion of the new school building, the Headmaster and his wife entertained the workman to dinner—at which neither beer nor ale was served! In January 1912, when the children returned to school, "they found the Dining Room tables arranged across the room instead of along it, and at mealtimes each boy and each girl found himself or herself with a boy on one side and a girl on the other. In order to give a variety of companionship it was arranged that once a week each boy should move to the right and each girl to the left. On the whole the new arrangement has been satisfactory , though a few have found it a trial, whilst others have found it too 118Bulletin of Friends Historical Association interesting." Teachers in Friends' schools today both in the United States ana England will no doubt appreciate the last sentence. Wigton has produced its fair quota of men and women who have distinguished themselves in both the arts and sciences. The members of the Wigton Old Scholars Association, in publishing this history of their old school, have not only performed a service to their Alma Mater but have added a precious volume to the history of Friends' education everywhere. Germantown Friends SchoolMARY RHODES One Man's Vision: The Story of the Joseph Rowntree Village Trust. New York: The Macmillan Company. 1955. 149 pages. $2.50. "I hope that the Institutions to which contributions are made from these Trusts may be living bodies free to adapt themselves to the everchanging necessities of the nation and of the religious society of which I am a member. . . . Realising not only that 'new occasions teach new duties' but that 'time makes ancient good uncouth,' I have given...


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