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112Bulletin of Friends Historical Association much, to matters which were not connected with his family or profits. Nathan served for one year, 1817-1818, as Guardian of the Poor. . . . Trotter did his duty as he saw it, but during his lifetime he gave relatively little to charity and at his death he left his entire fortune to his wife and children." At least the more charming, wealthy Quaker merchants of colonial Pennsylvania spent some of their money during their lives on fine private libraries and on the charities which made the "holy experiment" famous. Through a City Archway: The Story of Allen and Hanburys, contrasts sharply in tone and purpose with the American book. Its style, moralizing and discursive, will delight some readers, reminiscent as it is of a distant era in which both reader and writer had leisure. Ostensibly an historical account of a Quaker drug firm, the book is in actuality a catch-all of biographical sketches, observations on the manners of the eighteenth century, and assorted bits of pharmaceutical lore. Almost never do the authors trouble themselves with anything suggestive of business history. By far the most interesting part of this compound is the eighty-odd-page life of the distinguished English Friend, William Allen. Only a fraction of Allen's energies were absorbed by his business; the major portion was devoted to pioneering experiments in scientific research and to a variety of philanthropic concerns. Truly, a world of difference separated the two Quaker businessmen , William Allen and Nathan Trotter, the one so personable, so sensitive to his social responsibilities, the other so grubbily narrow in his interests. Lacking a conceptual framework to guide their research the authors of this book have produced only a superficial chronicle—however readable parts of it may be. Though a host of fascinating problems are suggested by the material, no causal analysis is offered. The reader is left to infer the extent to which religious considerations guided the policy of the company, although the authors assert that "to be born a Quaker was ... a piece of good fortune . . . integrity, reliability, industry, and craftmanship ... are qualities ordained and nurtured by the Quaker way of life." From a small apothecary's shop in Plough Court in 1715, the business expanded to international proportions as a drug manufacturing corporation, yet the word "capital," I believe, does not appear once. Perhaps because the book bears the imprimatur of the Company, no mention is made of the relations of the management to its labor force — a doubly fascinating question in view of the religious persuasion of the owners and the generally abominable labor conditions which obtained in England during much of the firm's existence. Hofstra College____________ ROBERT DAVISON Pennsylvania Politics and the Growth of Democracy, 1740-1776. By Theodore Thayer. Harrisburg: Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission. 1954. x, 234 pages. $2.75. Theodore Thayer, the biographer of Israel Pemberton, has given us a sound, lucid, well-documented study of Pennsylvania politics in the crucial decades leading up to the Revolution. We badly needed just Book Reviews113 such a book. Hitherto we have been dependent on the work of Isaac Sharpless — admirable within its limits but based almost wholly on Quaker sources—and Charles H. Lincoln's Revolutionary Movement m Pennsylvania—shrewd and scholarly but decidedly biased against what its author chose to call the "Quaker oligarchy." Now we have a book that tells the tangled story clearly and fairly, tells the whole story, with insight, impartiality, and workmanlike thoroughness. Not, one regrets to say, with literary felicity or narrative power. But one can't have everything. First and last, this is the story of that curious and consistently misunderstood phenomenon of Pennsylvania politics, the "Quaker party," and of its acknowledged leader, Benjamin Franklin, who was, of course, no Quaker and whose sympathies with Quakerism were, at most, imperfect . It is not the least of the book's virtues that it makes Franklin's relationship to the Quaker party intelligible for perhaps the first time. The other notable figures of the era are set in their proper context—Isaac Norris and Israel Pemberton, the leading Quaker políticos; Joseph Galloway, who managed the Quaker party when...


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