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Book Reviews51 caution of the Meeting. This committee, Chairman and all, was retained by Manchester University when in 1955 it took over the Hall. Of the individuals prominent in this venture the best known to American Friends was the second of the three principals, John William Graham. He had already served for eleven years as tutor in Mathematics, duties which he continued while serving as principal from 1897 to 1924. In the later twenties he visited the United States and was the first to hold the Howard M. Jenkins Chair of Quaker History at Swarthmore College. Pendle HillAnna Brinton Creative Worship and Other Essays. By Howard H. Brinton. Wallingford, Pennsylvania: Pendle Hill Publications. 1963. vii, 153 pages. $3.00. Pendle Hill has rendered a useful service to the many admirers of Howard Brinton by reprinting in a single volume three of his essays which have long been difficult to obtain: Creative Worship, first published in 1931, Divine-Human Society (1938), and Quakerism and Other Religions (1957). These essays are persuasive statements of a mystical and organic conception of Quakerism. According to this view, Quakerism is not to be understood merely as an extreme development of Protestantism. The early Friends thought of their movement as "primitive Christianity revived"; they believed that they were a community gathered by the action of the Spirit. They developed a method of worship which is both more personal and creative and less individualistic and authoritarian than that of classical Protestantism. They also developed the sense of a special and closely-knit community, living in the world but set apart from its standards, and striving to live by the inward light of Christ. While the important place given to mystical experience links Quakers to other groups both within Christianity and outside of it, it should not be supposed that Quakerism is identical with all mysticism. For in Quakerism the mystical element is informed and structured by the social and ethical teachings of the prophets and Jesus, and this tends to make it a more positive and constructive force than the negative mysticism of the East. Such an interpretation will seek historical confirmation, but it should not be understood merely as an hypothesis about historical antecedents and origins. It is offered as a constructive effort toward the solution of present problems in religious and social thought. If Quakers wish to make a distinctive contribution in the ecumenical movement and in relations with the non-Christian world, they will do well to ponder these thoughtful and penetrating essays. Swarthmore CollegeJohn M. Moore ...


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