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50Quaker History to deepen the quality of religious ministry, both lay and professional, in and outside the Society of Friends. Friends will do well to watch with sympathetic interest the next years of Earlham. Haverford, PennsylvaniaClarence E. Pickett Dalton Hall, A Quaker Venture. By G. A. Sutherland. London: Bannisdale Press. 1963. Ill pages. Illustrations. 15s. This concise account of a unique experiment by Friends in England is of special interest at this time to Friends involved in higher education in America. The venture, oddly enough, originated from a fund of money which Manchester Preparative Meeting had on hand. We usually think of beginning with an idea, then setting about to finance it. To this reader the careful financial reviews throughout the book are of special interest. At approximately the same time that American Friends were founding their colleges, the most successful of which have largely outgrown their denominational origins, as have also our leading universities, Manchester Friends established their Hall of Residence in connection with Owens College, the rapidly developing institution which became the University of Manchester. There were in the late nineteenth century other religious halls at Owens College. In the course of time all of them were transferred to university ownership. Not long after its opening, the Friends' residence for men students received the name by which it is generally known, Dalton Hall, in honor of John Dalton, the famous chemist, who was for more than fifty years a member of Manchester Meeting. Dalton Hall was at no time restricted to Friends. The residents, from 30 to 80 in number, represented a wide range of nationalities and considerable variety of religious affiliations. Those who believed in the Hall thought of it not primarily as a service to the Society of Friends, but as a service not rendered elsewhere to education in general. It is, however, true that some students who first came in contact with Quakerism through residence in the Hall later joined the Society of Friends. Financial support was always a problem, owing to the extensive tutorial provision and the comparatively small number of residents. As time went on, Dalton Hall had to compete with the university's subsidized houses. But the Dalton Hall system of tutorships produced a higher proportion of successes in examinations than was achieved in the university as a whole and, it may be added, the Hall residents were more proficient than the average in athletics. In wartime Dalton Hall afforded an open center for discussion in which there was "a predominant body of pacifist opinion." The report of a Yearly Meeting committee on Quaker educational needs proposed in 1918 the establishment of a Quaker college at Oxford or Cambridge and of a series of small hostels at the modern universities, but discussion brought out the perennial problems in such a scheme—difficulty in financing, shortage of suitable administrative personnel, and the improbability of enlisting the attendance of a considerable number of Friends. Throughout its independent existence Dalton Hall was sustained by a loyal and vigorous committee which offset, as is usual in Quaker affairs, the greater Book Reviews51 caution of the Meeting. This committee, Chairman and all, was retained by Manchester University when in 1955 it took over the Hall. Of the individuals prominent in this venture the best known to American Friends was the second of the three principals, John William Graham. He had already served for eleven years as tutor in Mathematics, duties which he continued while serving as principal from 1897 to 1924. In the later twenties he visited the United States and was the first to hold the Howard M. Jenkins Chair of Quaker History at Swarthmore College. Pendle HillAnna Brinton Creative Worship and Other Essays. By Howard H. Brinton. Wallingford, Pennsylvania: Pendle Hill Publications. 1963. vii, 153 pages. $3.00. Pendle Hill has rendered a useful service to the many admirers of Howard Brinton by reprinting in a single volume three of his essays which have long been difficult to obtain: Creative Worship, first published in 1931, Divine-Human Society (1938), and Quakerism and Other Religions (1957). These essays are persuasive statements of a mystical and organic conception of Quakerism. According to this view, Quakerism is not...


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