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BOOK REVIEWS The Second Period of Quakerism. By William C. Braithwaite. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1961. (Second edition prepared-by Henry J. Cadbury.) xxxvi, 735 pages. $5.50. The reader will recall that The Second Period first appeared in 1919 as a sequel to the late William C. Braithwaite's The Beginnings of Quakerism . There was a second printing of The Second Period in 1921, in which a few corrections were made. In 1955 Henry Cadbury revised The Beginnings , and he has followed the same plan in revising The Second Period. The Introduction,ยท originally contributed by Rufus M. Jones, has been supplanted by one written by Dr. Frederick B. Tolles. The text of the 1921 edition was not reset, but somewhat more than one hundred corrections or additions were inserted: in particular, quotations from printed sources were collated with the original manuscripts. At the end of the volume has been added a series of Additional Notes comprising sixty-five pages in which Dr. Cadbury inserts the recent scholarly findings on a number of points and, in some cases, alternative interpretations . He also identifies many individuals about whom more has been learned and pinpoints a number of occurrences. No one could have achieved his purposes better than Dr. Cadbury, who has kept in intimate touch with Quaker historiography for more than forty years. Thanks to his editorial work, The Second Period, unlike most books written over forty years ago, will continue as the authoritative work on the Quakers from 1660 to 1725. Dr. Tolles in his Introduction discusses the significance of Braithwaite's work as viewed from the perspectives of 1961. Braithwaite's insight was such that he anticipated some of the findings of the present-day historian and sociologist. For example, he understood that the Quaker way of life was the ultimate expression of the Puritan zest for righteousness, whereas others tend to identify it with "remote, somewhat problematic, continental mystical roots." Braithwaite, too, recognized that Quakerism, although heavily endowed with Christian mysticism, was always distinctly prophetic in character. Although innocent of sociological formulas, Braithwaite, in his account of the "institutionalization" of the Quaker sect through the latter part of the seventeenth century, parallels modern sociological thinking. He is a trustworthy guide to a religious and spiritual movement that ran the gamut from "pure sect," through every phase of institutional development , to theological "quietism." Dr. Tolles's Introduction is exactly what is needed to bring into focus a reading or indeed a rereading of The Second Period. (Incidentally, this handsomely printed book is a bargain.) Huntington LibraryJohn E. Pomfret 47 ...


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