In the 1960s, when most African states south of the Sahara achieved independence, Israel was one of the first countries to establish diplomatic relations with them and to offer them assistance. Israel was a major “donor” in Africa, and Israeli ambassadors operated in 33 countries. Africa had an important place in Israel’s foreign policy. However, in 1973, during and after the Yom Kippur War, in an unexpected and severely disappointing move, almost all African countries severed their diplomatic relations with Israel. Ten years later, Israel returned, gradually, to Africa. The article examines the factors that influenced these changes and to what extent Israel drew the necessary conclusions after returning to Africa. Special emphasis is given to the making of Israel-African policy in the 1960s, which still remains the basis of Israel’s present activities on the continent, although with significant changes.