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60Quaker History remained in love with each other throughout their lifetimes. But the Society of Friends forbade first-cousin marriages, and Hodgkin remained reluctantly obedient to Quaker instruction. Even after Sarah had married another and become widowed, Hodgkin, still a bachelor, took his case to Yearly Meeting and was turned down. Rather than be expelled from the Society he accepted the disappointment philosophically, and, at die age of fifty, married another widow with two grown sons after the elders of Nottingham Meeting were persuaded to admit her into membership. The picture of Thomas Hodgkin that emerges from Rose's book is that of an intelligent, idealistic, but pathetically ineffectual reformer whose failures appear to the reader to be the result not of the villainy of his antagonists (principally Harrison), but of some lack in his own personality. Tantalizingly incomplete as this picture is, there is still too much material here compressed into too small a space to make for easy reading. We may hope that with this beginning someone will undertake a more exhaustive and satisfying study of this interesting Quaker who so desperately wanted to be, in every sense, a healer. Warren Sylvester Smith The Hound of Conscience: A History of the No-Conscription Fellowship, 1914-1919. By Thomas C. Kennedy. Fayetteville, ArL: The University of Arkansas Press. 1981. 322 pages. $20.00. In 1914 Archibald Fenner Brockway, an English pacifist, wrote a letter to a newspaper calling on all draft-age men who might resist conscription to join together in an anti-conscription organization. Within a week 150 young men responded. That was the beginning of the No-Conscription Fellowship , an influential group that publicized draft resistance and supported English war resisters during the first World War. When conscription came to England the law provided several options to military service for conscientious objectors, including civilian alternative service and even absolute exemption, though in practice the latter was seldom granted. Those who accepted civilian alternative service were often assigned to menial work. They lived in camps and received only minimum pay for their labor. They were subject to the same pressures and frustrations which later plagued the Civilian Public Service Camps in the United States during World War II. The official position of NCF was to refuse any and all work under conscription . The men who followed this course were imprisoned under severely brutal conditions. The government devised a "cat and mouse" policy which led to repeated jailings as long as the war lasted. At first the draft resisters fully cooperated with the prison officials, but as the war dragged on more of them undertook work and hunger strikes to protest their oppression . Special wartime legislation also permitted the British authorities to punish anti-war speaking and writing. A number of NCF leaders, including Bertrand Russell, were jailed for publishing material which the authorities believed to be dangerous. Russell, for example, was convicted for writing an article in which he exposed the record of United States Soldiers as strike breakers. The setting in which the NCF operated was one of extreme repression. Book Reviews61 The Hound of Conscience is well-researched and well-written, with a wealth of detail about pacifism in wartime, conditions in the English prisons, and the divisions which plagued the peace movement. Perhaps too much is made of the differences between the Friends Service Committee and the Fellowship, differences of emphasis in trying to stop the war rather than publicizing the plight of imprisoned war resisters. Much of the NCF drama concerns unusually talented leaders whose wartime services are detailed in this study: Fenner Brockway, its founder, Reginald Clifford Allen, NCF chairman who led the movement for resistance inside the prisons, Catherine Marshall, one of the fellowship's most dedicated and hard-working leaders and, of course, Bertrand Russell, who was twice convicted for acts growing out of his pacifism. The autiior's viewpoint is one of critical appreciation of the NCF and its contributions. At times he seems unduly critical of the resisters whom he compared unfavorably to those in military service. He does point out the contributions of the jailed resisters to the heritage of English civil liberties and their later outstanding service...


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