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120QUAKER HISTORY motives to renew the iniquitous trade for Slaves to the African Coasts, contrary to every humane and righteous consideration, and in opposition to the solemn declarations often repeated in favour of universal liberty, thereby increasing the too general torrent of Corruption and licentiousness, and laying a foundation for future Calamities. We therefore earnestly sollicit your Christian interposition to discourage and prevent so obvious an Evil, in such manner as under the influence of Divine Wisdom you shall see meet— Signed in and on behalf of our Yearly Meeting held in Philadelphia for Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Delaware, and the Western parts of Maryland and Virginia; dated the fourth day of the tenth Month, 1783— (Signatures of 535 Friends appended) BOOK REVIEWS AND NOTES Edited by Edwin B. Bronner The Making of a Feminist; Early Journals and Letters of M. Carey Thomas. Edited by Marjorie Housepian Dobkin. Kent, Ohio: State University Press, 1980. 314 pp. cloth $15.00, paper $5.95. Persons who are interested in the Quaker response to the opportunities and problems of higher education for women in the latter half of the nineteenth century will wish to read carefully The Making of a Feminist; Early Journals and Letters of M. Carey Thomas, edited by Marjorie Housepian Dobkin. It has been more than twenty-five years since the last effort to appraise the contribution of Carey Thomas to the creation and establishment of Bryn Mawr College. Both Edith Finch, in her biography of Miss Thomas, and Cornelia Meigs, the author of the college oriented What Makes a College had access to much the same body of biographical and historical materials as did the current editor, Marjorie Dobkin. Miss Thomas was such a commanding figure in the first forty years of Bryn Mawr College's existence that any publication of some of her numerous journals, diaries and correspondence will find a ready market. As far as the current volume goes, it is illuminating of its titled theme, but is tantalizing in what it leaves out. Two of the most substantial portraits of contemporaries of Carey Thomas which emerge in this book are of Francis Barton Gummere and Hannah Whitall Smith. An entire chapter is given over to diary entries and extracts from letters between the aspiring young Baltimore woman and the equally determined young Quaker scholar, who upon returning from European studies began a long and distinguished career in teaching English and German philology at Haverford College. BOOK REVIEWS AND NOTES121 The glimpses that are afforded to Carey's quite extraordinary aunt, Hannah Whitall Smith, are significant in the final analysis of Miss Thomas' career situation as this book concludes the portrayal of the formative portion of her life. How effectively H. W. Smith influenced her headstrong niece in the period immediately preceding the opening of Bryn Mawr College is clearly shown in the publication of Smith's letter of advice to Carey Thomas and the carefully phrased but remarkably tactful yet confident letter which follows in which Miss Thomas offers her services to Dr. James E. Rhoads. Altogether these two portraits, the one of "Mr. Gummere" and the other of "Aunt Hannah," give a fresh new dimension to an appreciation of Carey Thomas. There is little doubt that in her childhood and young adult life Miss Thomas felt constrained by much that she had to accept in the particular Quaker milieu in which she grew up. The vigorous yet intemperate view which emerges in her comments and indeed strictures on the culture of Victorian Orthodox Quakerism in Baltimore prepares the reader for many struggles ahead to reach accommodation with the Quaker trustees who with her shared the fortunes of the nascent college. For specifics on these struggles , however, we cannot count on this volume, since it closes widi her triumphant return from abroad with valuable doctorate in hand, ready to take on the world of scholarship. In her long years of service to Bryn Mawr College, M. Carey Thomas maintained an increasingly tenuous relationship with the Society of Friends. This was done not from any sense of need for a religious framework for her own life, it seems clear, but rather from the practical realization that the...


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