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118QUAKER HISTORY the end of 1699, and Volume II begins with the new enrollment of laws prepared under his guidance in October and November, 1700. The fifty page historical introduction makes this volume more useful than the later ones which lack such supplementary material. Dr. Beckman has carefully annotated this essay, and assembled a helpful index at its conclusion. She has placed the statutes in their historical context and also provided an analysis of the types of laws passed. The laws enacted in the first two decades reflected Quaker concepts of society and justice more fully than the statutes written in the eighteenth century, for the Friendly influence in the province was overwhelming in those years. The emphasis upon freedom of conscience, the reflections of the peace testimony, and the mildness of the criminal code all reflect this influence Persons wishing to understand the social and political attitudes of seventeenth century Friends, on either side of the Atlantic, should find this volume an important resource. It stands on its own, as a collection of seventeenth century laws and as a product of the "Holy Experiment," in addition to filling a gap in the statutes of colonial Pennsylvania. It is unfortunate that this book was not produced in the same page size as the other volumes so that it would fit in with the remainder of the set on the shelves (it measures 8 Vi ? 11 inches; the others, 7x10). Even more regrettable, it lacks the full index found in the other volumes. Haverford CollegeEdwin B. Bronner Chester County Clocks and their Makers. By Arthur E. James, with a foreword by David Stockwell. 2nd ed. revised. Exton, Pa : Schiffer Publishing, Ltd., 1976. 205 pages. Illustrations, bibliography. $20.00. (First published in 1947: West Chester, Pa., Chester County Historical Society) The term "grandfather clock" was coined by one Henry Clay Work whose song, "My Grandfather's Clock," sold 800,000 copies in 1876. Previously these big time-keepers had been known as tall, hall, or high case clocks. The Centennial and Work's poem revived interest in a form of furniture which had fallen into low estate in the mid-19th century, a handsome specimen by a noted craftsman going for as little as $7.50. Needless to say, no such bargains are available today. The value of these clocks increases yearly, and it is in response to their popularity that Arthur James's valuable study, long out of print, has been reissued. Chester County produced approximately fifty clockmakers between the years of 1711, when Benjamin Chandlee Sr. arrived in East Nottingham, and 1840, by which time David Anderson of Honey Brook had been all but driven out of business by the mass produced New England shelf clock. The author arranges the craftsmen alphabetically rather than chronologically, but as the story of each unfolds a chronological pattern emerges. Early in the 18th century brass works were imported from England. The faces also were made of brass, with rich ornamentation in the spandrels, or corners surrounding the dial, and sometimes in a lunette above. A second BOOK REVIEWS AND NOTES119 phase in clock development brought somewhat larger dials and occasionally a moon wheel in the lunette. With the third and final phase came enamelled or painted iron faces, usually accompanied by moon wheels, which became almost universal by 1790. Then, in the first quarter of the 19th century the trade in Chester County began to decline. As the author points out, clockmaking was a complex process. Some men dealt only with the works, such as George Baldwin of Sadsburyville, whose cases were made by West Chester's Thomas Ogden. Others did only the cabinetmaking; while still others supplied both. Most cases were made of native walnut, cherry, or maple, and on occasion a purchaser might take his own log to the sawmills of Isaac Thomas of Willistown or Benjamin Garrett of neighboring Goshen, who would make him a clock case out of the home grown lumber. Many craftsmen were Friends or had Quaker ancestry, including the wellknown Chandlees, the various Jacksons of New Garden and of Unionville— then known as Jacksontown—and perhaps most significantly the Willistown group. For the above mentioned Isaac...


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