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Book Reviews Edited by Thomas D. Hamm Awaiting the Millennium: The Children ofPeace and the Village ofHope, 18121889 . By Albert Schrauwers. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1993. xxv + 300 pp. Maps, illustrations, charts, tables, appendixes, notes, bibliography, and indexes. Cloth, $50; paper, $17.95. In 1812, a separation in Yonge Street Monthly Meeting in Upper Canada resulted in a new religious body, the Children ofPeace. Although the Children of Peace ceased to exist in 1889, their legacy remains in the elaborate and allegorical "Temple ofPeace" (built 1825-1 83 1) in the Village ofSharon, east ofNewmarket, Ontario, and in the writings of their leading figure, David Willson (1778-1866), preserved in the Sharon Temple Museum. In their use of ritual and music, the Children of Peace diverged radically from their Quaker roots. Canadian Quaker historian Arthur Dorland, in his History of the Society of Friends (Quakers) in Canada (Toronto: Macmillan, 1927), p. Ill, commented that "one of the most extraordinary features ofthe whole movement was that its leader and the nucleus of its membership should have first come out from the Society of Friends at all." More recent work on David Willson, focusing on his writings rather than his rituals, has suggested more ofa continuity between his ideas and those of Friends. Schrauwers' study shows that Children ofPeace included the most active Quakers in the Yonge Street meeting. Albert Schrauwers has written a detailed account of the Children of Peace, based on a reconstruction of the settlement patterns, family relationships, and economicstatusoftheYongeStreetQuakersandtheChildrenofPeace. Schrauwers' analysis ofthe events of 1 812 will be familiar to readers of Quaker History from his "Separation of the Children of Peace" published in Spring 1990. Awaiting the Millennium provides more detail on the separation, and shows how the Children ofPeace transformed themselves from dissenting Quakers into a sect, their uneasy relations with the Canadian government and the role of some oftheir members in the Upper Canada Rebellion in 1 837, and the gradual reintegration ofsect members into mainstream Protestantism. The Children of Peace were a small group, restricted to a single location in Canada. Despite efforts of David Willson and others to gain a hearing from Quakers, and occasional visits to the Village of Hope by traveling Friends, there is no evidence that the Children ofPeace had any impact on Quakerism beyond the confines of Yonge Street Monthly Meeting. However, Schrauwers has written a book that deserves wide attention among historians of 19th century North American Quakerism. The anthropological and sociological methods he used to understand the factions in the separation of 1812 are more sophisticated and more convincing than those used in Robert Doherty's Hielte Separation (1967). Schrauwers takes theology seriously and does an excellentjob explaining the often obscure writings of David Willson, writings that invite comparison between the Children of Peace and other dissenting Quakers, such as Hannah Barnard in New York State or the New Lights in New England, prior to the Hicksite separation. As reconstructed by Schrauwers, the settlement patterns and the "moral economy" of rural Friends settlements—though in some aspects affected by conditions unique to Upper Canada, such as the Clergy Reserves—deserve careful consideration by anyone hoping to understand the westward migration of Friends in the early 19th Book Reviews131 century. Finally, the gradual re-integration ofthe radical Children ofPeace into the economic and religious mainstream suggests, to this reviewer at least, new ways oflooking at changes among both Orthodox and Hicksite Friends in the mid 19th century. State University of New York at BuffaloChristopher Densmore Quakers Observed in Prose and Verse: An Anthology 1656-1986. Compiled and edited by Mollie Grubb. York, England: Sessions, 1993. A5 - 132 pp. Notes, index, illustrations. Paper. £7.50 (+ £1.00 p&p = £8.50) In 1985 David Blamires published inA Quaker MiscellanyforEdwardMilligan an overview of references to Quakers by non-Friends from Pepys to Iris Murdoch which ended with the suggestion that an anthology of readings would be useful. Taking the title of his essay and responding to his suggestions, Mollie Grubb solicited contributions from readers of 77¡e Friend and drew on her own wide knowledge of Quaker history to produce this documentary history of three centuries ofperceptions ofQuakers by those outside...


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