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Book Reviews55 were diverse and complicated phenomena whose contributions made the world slightly safer. This is a multi-cultural and politically correct history in the very best sense, combining the rigors oftraditional scholarship with an international scope and showing the strengths and weaknesses of movements thatcommunicatedtopoliticalleadersthatthe alternatives were nuclear disaster or some form ofpeace. J. William FrostSwarthmore College The Quakers: Money and Morals. By James Walvin. London: John Murray, 1997. ix+243 pp. Illustrations,notes, bibliography, and index. $45. UniversityofYorkhistorianJamesWalvinhas establishedhis reputation with a series of books on British colonialism, the slave trade, and the antislaverymovement. Here he turns his attentionto the question ofwhythe SocietyofFriends, arelatively small andunpopularsect, came to be amajor force in British reform and philanthropy in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Walvinbeginswithanoverview ofthe Quakermovementas itdeveloped in the seventeenth century. Basing his work in large part on such familiar sources as the work of Christopher Hill, Barry Reay, and William C. Braithwaite, Walvin argues that the experience of persecution forced Friends todevelopnetworksofself-supportandself-regulation. ForWalvin, this was critical, since "the tactics, organization and ideology which had been fashioned to stave offhostilityprovided the very basis for a great deal ofQuaker success to come in a more benign religious and political world." WhatFriendscreatedwas aculturethatwas,paradoxically, givenQuaker ambivalence about "the world," almostideal for worldly success. Ingrained Quaker virtues ofthrift, honesty, and plain living produced prosperity. So did the Quaker emphasis on practical education. In a nation where "connections " and personal reputation were paramount for credit and access to capital, the complex Quaker networks of kinship and traveling ministry gave Friends an advantage that many oftheir competitors lacked. Walvin also finds common among Friends "a deep-seated curiosity" that led them toward science, both practical (especially in the development of the early iron industry) and abstract (as in the large number ofQuaker botanists.) This capitalistethic, however, was modifiedby an equally strong Quaker commitment to compassion for all human beings, Quaker and otherwise. Walvin sees its roots in the experience ofpersecution and the strong Quaker commitment to justice. This manifested itself most obviously in the antislavery movement, but also in virtually every major reform movement in 56Quaker History England between 1750 and 1900, especially those which advocated the rights ofthe "oppressed and defenceless." Ofcourse, such reforming zeal was founded on inculcating Quaker virtues in non-Friends. Workhouses, for example, would be places "where charity went hand in hand with selfimprovement ."Walvinconcludes withasprightlychapteronQuakers inthe chocolate business, surveys ofQuakers as industrial employers (focusing largely on a few firms like Cadbury, Rowntree, and Huntley and Palmer), and Seebohm Rowntree's pioneering studies of urban and industrial poverty . By 1914, Walvin sees fundamental change. Friends, once extraordinarily skeptical ofthe efficacy ofstate action, were now demanding that it safeguard the rights of working people. I confess that I finished this work with a sense ofvague disappointment. It does not contain much that will be new or surprising for those who are familiar with the last generation ofscholarship on Quakerism. But it is still worth reading as an able synthesis. Clearly written and sensibly argued, it is the best work we have on English Friends and their relationship with the larger society. Thomas D. HammEarlham College For Emancipation and Education: Some Black and Quaker Efforts, 1680-1900. Ed. by Eliza Cope Harrison. N.p.: Awbury Arboretum Association , 1997. iv + 52 pp. Bibliographies. Paper, $7.00. This 52 page book grew out ofa lecture series on Friends and AfricanAmericans . Their sponsor, the Awbury Arboretum, has roots in a midnineteenthcenturyPhiladelphiaQuakerfamilyhome , and todayreaches out with active programming to the local, mostly African-American community . Each ofthe eminent scholars addressed an aspect ofQuaker and Black efforts during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, mostly in Philadelphia , to end slavery and educate Black citizens. The papers have been shortened but remain an excellent summary of the complex issues presented . They neithergloss over the ambiguities with afacile filiopietism nor focus on debunking Friends. Emma Lapsansky explains the Quaker settlers' unfamiliarity with Black chattel slavery and their uneasy accommodation to it. She mentions early Quaker opponents of slavery, especially George Keith. Her essay perhaps indicates more of the editor's cuts. Lapsansky alludes to but does not describe the complicating factors that led Friends to reject Keith...

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