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Nineteen insertion/deletion and restriction site polymorphisms on autosomal and mitochondrial genomes and mitochondrial DNA hypervariable segment 1 sequences were used to study genetic diversities and affinities among four endogamous groups of Punjab, India. High values of heterozygosity were noted in all four groups, both in the autosomal and mitochondrial genomes. The coefficient of gene differentiation among the groups, however, was found to be low. Genetic distance and phylogenetic analyses based on these data indicated that inferences on affinities among the populations were different when the two sets of loci (autosomal and mitochondrial) were considered separately. We have interpreted these results on the basis of some known historical data on migrations into this region. The results of this study when compared with the findings of some previous studies indicate that there are regional differences in the patterns of correlation between genomic and sociocultural affinities within India.