José Itzigsohn is Associate Professor of Sociology at Brown University. He is the author of Developing Poverty: The State, Labor Market Deregulation, and the Informal Economy in Costa Rica and the Dominican Republic (Penn State UP) and of articles such as the forthcoming "Dependency and Beyond: Elements for an Analysis of Social Change in Latin America" (Radical Philosophy Review); "World Systems and Institutional Analysis: Tensions and Complementarities" (Review: The Journal of the Fernand Braudel Center, 2001); and "Immigration and the Boundaries of Citizenship: The Institutions of Immigrants' Political Transnationalism" (International Migration Review, 2000). He has also co-authored "Competing Identities: Race, Ethnicity and Pan-Ethnicity among Dominicans in the US" (Sociological Forum, 2001).
1. Levitt provides an initial typology of communities that may emerge as a result of transnational migration (Transnational Villagers 13; "Transnational Migration").
2. Unfortunately, and not at all uncommonly, the concept of "social capital" remains undefined.
3. This distinction is very well elaborated by Alejandro Grimson in his study of Bolivian identities in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Basch, Linda G., Nina Glick Schiller, and Cristina Blanc Szanton. Nations Unbound: Transnational Projects, Post-colonial Predicaments, and De-territorialized Nation-States
. Langhorne, PA: Gordon, 1994.
Dahl, Robert A. Polyarchy: Participation and Opposition
. New Haven: Yale UP, 1971.
Foner, Nancy. "What's New about Transnationalism? New York Immigrants Today and at the Turn of the Century." Diaspora
6 (1997): 355-75.
Glick Schiller, Nina. "Transmigrants and Nation-States: Something Old and Something New in the U.S. Immigrant Experience." The Handbook of International Migration: The American Experience
. Ed. Charles Hirschman, Philip Kasinitz, and Josh De Wind. New York: Russell Sage, 1999. 94-119.
Goldring, Luin. "The Gender and Geography of Citizenship in Mexico-U.S. Transnational Spaces." Identities
7 (2001): 501-37.
Grimson, Alejandro. Relatos de la diferencia y la igualdad [Narratives of Difference and Equality]
. Buenos Aires: EUDEBA, 1999.
Guarnizo, Luis E., Arturo Ignacio Sanchez, and Elizabeth M. Roach. "Mistrust, Fragmented Solidarity and Transnational Migration: Colombians in New York City and Los Angeles." Ethnic and Racial Studies
22 (1999): 367-96.
Itzigsohn, José. "Immigration and the Boundaries of Citizenship: The Institutions of Immigrant's Political Transnationalism." International Migration Review
34 (2000): 1126-53.
Itzigsohn, José, and Silvia Giorguli Saucedo. "Immigrant Incorporation and Sociocultural Transnationalism." International Migration Review. Forthcoming 2002.
Kyle, David. Transnational Peasants
. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 2000.
Landolt, Patricia. "Salvadoran Economic Transnationalism: Embedded Strategies for Household Maintenance, Immigrant Incorporation, and Entrepreneurial Expansion." Global Networks
1 (2001): 217-41.
Levitt, Peggy. "Transnational Migration: Taking Stock and Future Directions." Global Networks
1 (2001): 195-216.
Portes, Alejandro. "Introduction: The Debates and Significance of Immigrant Transnationalism." Global Networks
1 (2001): 181-93.
Portes, Alejandro, William Haller, and Luis Guarnizo. "Transnational Entrepreneurs: An Alternative Form of Immigrant Economic Adaptation." American Sociological Review
67 (2002): 278-98.
Tölölyan, Khachig. "Rethinking Diaspora(s): Stateless Power in the Transnational Moment." Diaspora
5 (1996): 3-36.