Several barriers can frustrate a deaf individual's intention to enter a substance abuse treatment program. Because few specialized programs work with the Deaf, it is difficult to determine the factors that influence a deaf individual's desire to maintain sobriety following completion of a residential treatment program. A sample of 100 individuals was drawn from the Minnesota Chemical Dependency Program for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Individuals, a model hospital-based inpatient treatment program. The study participants were asked to complete pretreatment and posttreatment surveys upon admission and discharge, respectively, in addition to a follow-up survey, to help determine which background factors might be associated with different treatment outcomes for deaf and hard of hearing persons who completed treatment in the program. Results are presented for the pretreatment and posttreatment assessments, and for the follow-up survey. Study limitations are discussed and recommendations are given for future treatment programs serving deaf and hard of hearing individuals.