To trace changes in the circulation of knowledge between Inner Asia and the wider Qing empire, MATTHEW W. MOSCA analyzes the case of Khungghar-a term used by Mongols for the Ottoman Empire but poorly understood by Han Chinese. From 1644 to roughly 1755, Han Chinese officials and geographers were largely unfamiliar with information possessed by the Manchus and Mongols managing the empire's inland frontiers. From 1755 to 1799, the transmission of intelligence between these two groups increased at the Qing court. Between 1800 and the 1911, Han Chinese geographers debated the location, identity, and strength of Khungghar, but they based their claims on textual research, and the role of frontier reports waned. The circulation of frontier knowledge throughout the Qing empire, Mosca shows, was greatly influenced by changes in the relationships between different segments of the imperial elite.