- The Whole Story
Julia E. Connelly, an associate professor of internal medicine at the University of Virginia, practices medicine in a rural community with two other primary care physicians. Her teaching interests include doctor-patient communication skills, literature written by physicians, and medical ethics.
1. Eric J. Cassell, "The Nature of Suffering and the Goals of Medicine," New England Journal of Medicine 306 (18 March 1982): 639-45.
2. Rita Charon, "To Render the Lives of Patients," Literature and Medicine 5 (1986): 58-74.
3. Leo Tolstoy, The Death of Ivan Ilych, trans. Louise and Aylmer Maude, in The Death of Ivan Ilych and Other Stories (New York: New American Library/Signet, 1960), 95-156; and Tillie Olsen, "Tell Me A Riddle," in Tell Me A Riddle (New York: Dell, 1961), 63-116. Copyright © 1961 by Tillie Olsen. Reprinted by permission of Tillie Olsen and Dell Publishing. All subsequent quotations are from these editions and are cited parenthetically in the text.
4. Because Tillie Olsen gives Eva no last name, she will be referred to simply as Eva throughout this essay.
5. Martin Heidegger, Being and Time, trans. John Macquarrie and Edward Robinson (New York: Harper and Row, 1962), 210-24.
6. Irvin D. Yalom, Existential Psychotherapy (New York: Basic Books, 1980), 31-33.
7. Ibid., 31.
8. Ronald Blythe, "Introduction," to Leo Tolstoy, The Death of Ivan Ilych, trans. Lynn Solotaroff (New York: Bantam Books, 1981), 33-34.
9. Yalom, 31.
10. Humphrey Osmond and Miriam Siegler, "The Dying Role-Its Clinical Importance," Alabama Journal of Medical Science 13 (1976): 313-17.
11. See Jay Katz, The Silent World of Doctor and Patient (New York: Free Press, 1984), 217-19; and Ernest Becker, The Denial of Death (New York: Free Press, 1973).