This article explores the vexed relationship between studies of gender and sexuality, especially as they relate to masculinity, and the growing field of world history. These bodies of scholarship have largely remained separate, even antagonistic, despite shared thematic concerns with transnational flows. Overall, world historians privilege political economy and global connections, while historians of gender and sexuality concern themselves with the cultural production of difference in specific locales. The case of U.S.-based Latin American studies offers ways of thinking across the culture versus economy divide; above all, it suggests that world history can usefully be narrated as a story of masculinities.