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69 ( ÇJ?, p. 298) "arm around her" (p. IO6), instead of "she still rides gaily" (CP, p. 333) "still she rides gaily" (CP, p. 96), instead of "War's annals" (CP, p. 511) "Wars annals" (p. 62), instead of "cloud into night" (CP, p. 511) "fade into night" (p. 62). Also, Hardy's capitalisations, an essential feature of his poems, are frequently misrepresented. Instead of "Present" (CP, p. 521) Richardson writes "present" (p. 25), instead of "Loves" (CP, p. 356) "loves" (p. 26), instead of "my Love" (CP, p. 68) "my love" (p. 66), instead of "Time" (CP, p. 797) "time" (p. 121), instead of "City stage" (CP, p. 53) "city stage" (p. 122 Fifty years after his death Hardy surely deserves more reverence for the original words of his poems. NOTES 1. James Kissane. "Tennyson: The Passion of the Past and the Curse of Time," English Literary History, XXXII (I965). 85-IO9. 2. Ibid, p. 100. 3. William Archer. "Mr. Hardy's Poems," STUDY AND STAGE. A YEARBOOK OF CRITICISM (Lond: Grant Richards, 1899), PP- 220-27, especially p. 225. Universität Trier (West Germany) Werner Bies 2. An Ambitious Projects Irish Culture in a Single Volume Harold Orel (ed). Irish History and Cultures Aspects of A People 's Heritage (Lawrence: University of Kansas P, 1976T7 fl4.00 and £8.95. An editor must be selective to attempt to cover Irish history, art and architecture, the theatre, and two major writers in a single volume. In Irish History and Culture, Harold Orel is. As a result , he and six colleagues from Kansas have produced a book which should prove useful for Irish Studies Programs and undergraduate survey courses but will not satisfy a specialist in any of the areas treated. The obvious necessity of selection leads to omissions and over-simplifications. Still, the editor and his co-auth are to be applauded for their ambition and, given the scope of the attempt, their achievement in suggesting the richness and complexi of Irish culture. The book's virtues and limitations are displayed in Robert Smith's opening chapter on mythology. Defining myth as a way of explainin man's past and future, Smith selects two archetypal examples from Ireland's early literature and focuses upon them. Ulster's myth, the Cuchulain saga, depicts the hero as conqueror and indicates that the society valued property. The myth of the South, the Feni cycle (though Connaught and Donegal preferred GoIl to Finn), shows the hero as conquered and indicates the society valued generosity. 70 This is a good reading of the stories as they relate to the Old Irish civilization which produced them and, since Ulster was the last warring section and last to be effectively subdued by colonization (in the 17th century), the interpretation may be true even through the Renaissance. It was, however, the generous, unwarlike South which attempted armed revolts in the 18th and 19th centuries and achieved freedom by means of war in the 20th century. Also, did the Scotch and English settlers, who became the majority in Ulster, adopt the archetype of the warring Irish they displaced? Such stereotypes would appear more interesting than persuasive. Smith is on safer ground in a later chapter on calendar and festival customs. Because Irish art is little known and less understood, the book's most useful, informative chapters are those on art and architecture written by Marilyn Stokstad, Linda Gill, and Mary Jean Nelson. Numerous illustrations (unfortunately, in black and white) lend support to their clear commentaries on the elaborate ambiguities of early Christian art, medieval Irish adoption of serpent and dragon designs from the Vikings, acceptance of the Romanesque style from the English. By reading these chapters, the specialist in history or literature can better understand the works he teaches. The specialist may be less pleased with the chapters on history and literature, however, although the history is accurate, acceptably pro-Irish, and sins only by omission. For example, Henry Snyder's essay, "From the Treaty of Limerick to Union With Great Britain," might have mentioned the 17th-century pamphlets of Patrick Darcy (Catholic) and William Molyneux (Anglican) on behalf of Irish parliamentary representation. (If they were not immediately...


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