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BOOK REVIEWS Nolan's contention that Joyce's allegiances are partly with the citizen in "Cyclops." The person who comes across most fully in Castle's book is Bronislaw Malinowski, whose Argonauts of the Western Pacific, The Sexual Life of Savages, and A Diary in the Strict Sense of the Term are shown to be fascinating and vital pathways to the heart of the modernist enterprise. In Malinowski's Diary (authentically inauthenticated at a point in the text as A Dairy in the Strict Sense of the Word), the temper of modern man is revealed in its rawest state: Malinowski reaches a "Dostoevskian state" of uncontrollable sexual longing, desires "the ultimate mastery of all things," fantasizes about beating his servants to death, and has visions of his fiancée "with her hair down." All of this, as Castle rightly implies, sounds like T. S. Eliot on a particularly bad day, but Castle goes on to distinguish the Irish Revivalists from "metropolitan modernist [s] like Eliot," contrasting the tensions and contortions of Malinowski and the Irish modernists with the more assured European attitudes of The Waste Land. This shows an unwillingness to allow Eliot a mask. Eliot's social and cultural status was also a self-fashioning, for a St. Louis boy whose original source of primitive imagery was not the Ganges but the Mississippi, and whose work clearly mirrors the "fragmentation and multiplication of narrative perspective" that Castle finds in Revivalists like Synge and Joyce. Eliot also took an interest in Melanesia, sparked by the parallel work of W. H. R. Rivers, and if anyone aligns politically with the Yeats who said in On the Boiler that "sooner or later we must limit the families of the unintelligent classes" it is the Eliot of After Strange Gods. Castle's emphasis on the ambivalence of the participant /observer position need not be restricted to the writers of the Irish Revival, and can be brought generally into play for all modernists, as they grapple with the task of identifying their audience. Sebastian D. G. Knowles ________________ Ohio State University Editing Modernist Texts George Bornstein. Material Modernism: The Politics of the Page. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001. xii + 185 pp. $54.95 MATERIAL MODERNISM summarizes George Bornstein's thoughts on editorial theory by way of analyses of texts by John Keats ("On First Looking into Chapman's Homer"), Emma Lazarus ("The New Colossus"), W. B. Yeats ("Leda and the Swan," "When You Are Old," "Sep449 ELT 45 : 4 2002 tember 1913," and the volume of poems, The Tower), Gwendolyn Brooks ("my dreams, my works must wait till after hell"), Marianne Moore ("The Fish," "Sojourn in the Whale," "Spenser's Ireland," and "Virginia Britannia "), James Joyce (Ulysses), and, more briefly, some other works. The book closes with a chapter entitled "Afro-Celtic connections: hybridity and the material text," which marks a new departure away from editorial theory. I will come back to it. Bornstein's argument is prompted by the observation that the way in which modernist texts (usually poems) are printed in anthologies and collected editions differs markedly from that of their "original site of production." Such reprints or editions do not and certainly cannot reproduce the early material textualities, i.e. layout, fonts, collocations, publishing venues, illustrations, etc., all of which carry semantic weight. These features constitute what Bornstein calls the bibliographic code; they provide a "supplement" to the linguistic code. The linguistic code consists of the mere words that may be reproduced in any physical shape and context, but do no longer convey the rich semantic connotations of earlier appearances; instead they acquire a new set of connotations which may result in shifts of meaning. The original publications often suggest political, social, gendered, biographical, historical, or religious overtones, most of which are jettisoned or altered in later versions. Hand in hand with these textual considerations goes a new editorial theory. Traditionally minded editors, epitomized by the names of W. W. Greg and Fredson Bowers, sought to establish a stable text based on what they concluded to be final authorial intentions. Such procedures, however, have been challenged and rejected by recent theorists, e.g. Jerome McGann, Peter Shillingsburg (both referred to...


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pp. 449-453
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Will Be Archived 2021
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