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ELT 45 : 4 2002 onomies at odds with the collection's stated aims, as Lucas seems anxious to spare the novels he examines the ignominy of being made to stand outside modernism. That this essay is given the book's final word points to the volume's unfortunate structural weakness. The essays have been arranged under subcategories—Modern/Modernist, History/Time, Gender/Sexuality, Geography/Space, and Epilogue—and in a collection that aspires to dissolve categories, it is disappointing to see divisions thrown up in this way, particularly as the labels themselves are vague and unhelpful. This separation and labeling militate against productive interaction among and between the essays, with the effect at times of exaggerating an individual essay's weakness, as in the case of Lucas's piece, which, laboring under the signpost "Epilogue," is made to unfairly carry the burden of conclusion at the end of a stimulating assortment of readings and approaches . The reader either submits to or resists being led to read the Rignall and CaserÃ-o essays, for instance, as necessarily linked (under History/Time), and either submission or resistance can limit the texts' possibilities and range. Greenslade's essay on the cult of Pan and its hyper-masculinity might be read in relation to Ann Ardis's essay, "Delimiting Modernism and the Literary Field: D. H. Lawrence and The Lost Girl" in which Ardis discusses the feminization of low culture, but the texts are not grouped together. Similarly, Caserio's discussion of religious belief—as well as his observations regarding suffragist women's writing's links to terrorism—makes his essay a potentially amenable companion to Pykett's; however, Pykett is segregated under Gender/ Sexuality. This arbitrary parcelling off of essays is hardly insurmountable , but it is, at best, distracting and frustrating. That so many of the selections here impress and inspire in spite of infelicities of organization testifies to the compelling quality of most of the contributors' work and, especially, of the editors' revolutionary ambition. Maureen O'Connor ______________ Loyola Marymount University Modernism & the Celtic Revival Gregory Castle. Modernism and the Celtic Revival. New York: Cambridge University Press. 2001. viii + 312 pp. $59.95 EARLY MODERNISM is full of the effects of orality. Conrad presumes that his audience will sit through a night on a smelly London river at low tide waiting for Marlow to get to the point, Ford seats Dow446 BOOK REVIEWS ell's listener by an imaginary fireside, and the "you" of Eliot's love song is quite pronounced before Prufrock loses interest in anyone but himself. In the beginning, modernism is in search of its audience, and Gregory Castle reveals the struggle of the Irish Revivalists to create their audience , and explores the anthropological roots behind the separate attempts of Yeats, Synge, and Joyce to reinvent the Irish soul. In his recovery of modernism's anthropological principles, Castle follows in the footsteps of James Clifford, Marc Manganaro, and Michael North, who have shown convincingly in works over the last decade that the rise of modernism and the rise of a British Ethnographic Bureau, formed in 1897 so that "a knowledge of the races of the empire might be acquired," were parallel developments that can be usefully mapped together. Castle reviews the history of recent anthropological readings of the modernist period, and at the same time provides an excellent overview of the last quarter-century's work on the Irish Revival, from Seamus Deane and DecÃ-an Kiberd to Emer Nolan, with whose views on Joyce and nationalism he is often in sympathy. Revivalist representations of the Irish people are richly layered, and Castle carefully peels away the several ambiguities of Yeats and Synge's Anglo-Irishness, providing a useful summary of current debates within ethnographic studies on the ambivalence of the participant/observer dynamic, through which Synge's role on the Aran Islands is thoroughly deconstructed. Castle places the word "peasant" inside "the quotation marks of suspicion," and presents a subtle study of Yeats's notion of the "peasant" as an essentialist Other, an imaginary ideal, the creation of which makes Yeats as compliant in cultural imperialist attitudes towards Celtic life as Matthew Arnold. Much of Yeats's authority as...


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pp. 446-449
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