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book Reviews ture consciousness in the way Virginia Woolf suggests in her essay "Modern Novels." After establishing biographical, historical, and critical contexts for the novel, this volume provides five essays representing five different contemporary critical theories: psychoanalytical, reader-response, feminist , deconstruction, and new historicism. Introductions to each essay clearly explain characteristics of the theoretical approach and define key terms. Sheldon Brivic uses Freudian theory to elaborate on Stephen's sense of alienation, his construction of masculinity, his view of women as temptress or virgin, and his idealization of motherhood which extends to Ireland as mother. Norman HoUand takes as his starting point Stephen's (and his own) non serviam. RebeUion and control serve as his focal points; however, his own questions about Stephen's overblown rhetoric provide a good model for students not used to questioning literal representations in the text. Suzette Henke's feminist analysis of Portrait traces the dichotomies inherent in the ways Stephen's world constructs gender, as well as the narcissism and misogyny which are Stephen's "adolescent traits he has to outgrow on his path to artistic maturity." Cheryl Herr uses the image of the labyrinth to deconstruct Dedalus, delineating Stephen's attempts to forge self-identity amid the social and intellectual institutions that prescribe particular beliefs limited to hierarchical ways of thinking. R. B. Kershner suggests that nineteenth-century positivist attitudes about genius, the superhuman or superman, inform Joyce's text. Although the average undergraduate would find these essays perhaps too challenging, with the right kind of guidance, studente could discover in them models for the sorts of questions one asks about a novel. From these intellectual endeavors studente can see that any "answers" about a text's meaning are reflections of the questions asked. Each critical essay provides not an exit from the labyrinth but a view of a different room. Susan Swartzlander ______________ Grand Valley State University Intellectuals versus the Masses John Carey. The Intellectuals and the Masses: Pride and Prejudice Among the Literary Intelligentsia, 1880-1939. Boston: Faber and Faber, 1992. vii + 246pp. $24.95 267 ELT 38:2 1995 IN THE FIRST PARAGRAPH of his preface, John Carey, Merton Professor of English at Oxford University, declares that This book is about the response of the English literary intelligentsia to the new phenomenon of mass culture. It argues that modernist literature and art can be seen as a hostile reaction to the unprecedented large reading public created by late nineteenth century educational reforms. The purpose of modernist writing, it suggests, was to exclude the newly educated (or "semieducated ") readers, and so to preserve the intellectuals' seclusion from the "mass." (vii) This massive assault on the modernists and their elitism comprises two major sections: Part I. Themes," which includes four chapters (The Revolt of the Masses," "Rewriting the Masses," The Suburbs and the Clerks," and "Natural Aristocrats" (all based on Carey's T. S. Eliot Memorial Lectures in 1989); and Part II. "Case Studies," which offers a chapter on "George Gissing and the Ineducable Masses," two chapters on Ή. G. WeUs Getting Rid of People" and Ή. G. Wells Against H. G. Wells" (the first being an abbreviated version of Carey's Henry James Lecture at the Wye Literary Festival in 1990). There is also a chapter each on Arnold Bennett (Carey's favorite modernist) and on the controversial "Wyndham Lewis and Hitler." After reading this provocative critique on those of the literary intelligentsia —the modernist avant garde—who, deploring the results of mass education since 1870, the emergence of the "vulgar" popular press, and bourgeois suburban culture, sought to exclude the half-educated hoi polloi from the culture they had helped create, it is apparent that this book is Carey's major contribution to the ongoing great High Culture vs. Popular Culture debate. It is therefore easy to see why the defenders of the modernists in 7XS and elsewhere have variously accused Carey of providing "ammunition for the already large anti-intellectual majority in the English-speaking world," serving as "the voice of middle-class begrudgement," crafting an apology for Mrs. Thatcher's "vendetta" against "High Culture," ignoring the fact that a large part of the intelligentsia in every era have always felt...


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pp. 267-270
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