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ELT 38:4 1995 and Lovers and the novel itself—as well as between the important parallel thinkers and that novel—especially because of the significance of the concept of "protoplasm" in both texts. I would have liked more discussion of the relationship of the Romantic "great man" theory, and emphasis on the primitive, to Lawrence's concept of the natural aristocrat . And of the relationship of the idea of polarity to human connections in general, with their conflict between the desire for, and fear of, union. The benefit of Montgomery's book, however, is that it provides us with a history of ideas behind Lawrence's texts, and encourages us to make our own further connections between Lawrence and his "parallel" minds. The prose, given the complexity of the subject matter, is on the whole clear and compelling; the occasional lapses—a dangling modifier (9), "hearken" for "hark" (41), and the use throughout of the word "man" for "human"—underscore the prevailing competency. Montgomery is clearer overall than Lawrence is, especially in the analysis of "Study of Thomas Hardy," a work in which terms change their meanings and concepts therefore move tantalizingly beyond one's grasp. Where understanding fails, Montgomery recommends the employment of reason or imagination. In fact, the study demands the reader's imaginative participation , because linear thinking can take us to the door but not over the threshold. Montgomery writes that "at times Lawrence's prose catches fire and carries us with him past our normal mental categories into a vision of life that reveals opposites in their sheer interaction and underlying unity." So, too, at times Montgomery's prose lights up, as when he describes the transfiguring mystical joyfulness with which Lawrence approaches Hardy's primal heath (84). If occasionally the reader bogs down in the philosophical systems adumbrated here, getting lost in the subtleties of the concepts, Lawrence is never very far from the discussion. In the final judgment, The Visionary D. H Lawrence is a useful companion piece for our readings of Lawrence's works. Judith Ruderman Duke University Joyce & Irish Literature Maria Tymoczko. The Irish Ulysses. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994. xvi+ 391 pp. $45.00 MANYYEARS AGO a young scholar claimed that the governing principle of Thomas Mann's The Magic Mountain was the grail legend. He communicated this claim to Mann himself, who responded that he 550 BOOK REVIEWS had never thought of the grail legend while composing The Magic Mountain but was now forced to agree that the legend did indeed operate in his novel even though he had not put it there. If Maria Tymoczko could send her monograph to James Joyce, the result might be the same. However, given her claim that Joyce was self-consciously "intent on creating an Irish literature in English, not on succeeding as an English writer" (334), she would be disappointed if he, like Mann, denied any intention. Although conceding that the "European elements of Joyce's symbolism and architectonics . . . are correct as far as they go," she maintains that the governing principles forming Poldy, Stephen, and Molly were deliberately taken from Irish tradition. Accordingly, her purpose is to "investigate at length Joyce's debt to Irish literature in Ulysses and to reclaim Joyce as an Irish writer" (2). Trained in medieval Celtic literature and familiar with the entire fifteen hundred years of the Irish literary tradition, she does indeed investigate Joyce's alleged debt at great length. The evidence adduced seems overwhelming. Yet it is almost entirely circumstantial, and Professor Tymoczko in her enthusiasm for her cause sometimes carries the argument too far and ends in inconsistency. One of her major analytical points, for example, is that Joyce uses Irish myth "as an architectural substructure to the realistic surface of the story," with myth entering "on the level of the fabuL· ... as a subtext" in a way that enables Joyce to refer "to main elements ... rather than give point-bypoint correspondences" (29). A major source (and one where some of the evidence is direct rather than circumstantial) was apparently Lebor Gabala Erenn, known in English as The Book of Invasions, in which Tymoczko finds the governing principle "for the constellation of...


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