The re-creation of South Africa in 1994 as an inclusive democracy in which the state, for the first time, represents all of the country's citizens has led to a new interest in immigration. This paper documents the development of new state discourses and exclusionary immigration policies since 1994. This paper examines these new fears about immigration, and the seeming contradiction between the immigration policies of the post-1994 South African state and its apparent commitment to democracy, inclusivity, and human rights. These developments are placed within the context of the construction of its new nation-building project and national identity. This paper argues that a shift toward citizenship and inclusivity as markers of belonging has led, paradoxically, to an exclusive and increasingly restrictionist immigration policy.


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pp. 15-32
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