Since the late 1980s, Europe has been in the throes of a major transformation. Trying to determine its character and consequences poses a great challenge for a European Studies program such as ours at the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced Intemational Studies (SAIS). We have tried to probe the changes and involve our students through an extensive project, “Discovering the New Europe,” developed and carried out with the Washington Foundation for European Studies (WFES). The New Germany in the New Europe is the fourth of such series.
Each series has been run in the same way. We commission a group of papers, mostly from European authors. We invite each author to present a draft at a seminar of experts, and also to give our students a lecture. The experts are drawn from our own and neighboring faculties, the media, and government officials. The lectures are advertised and open to the public. Discussion in these sessions is often animated and we ask the authors to review their texts in the light of it. When the series is finished we publish the essays and distribute them as widely as we can in the U.S. and in Europe, from a list drawn from academic institutions, government, the media, and business. We keep them available for our own future students and to other university programs who may find them useful.
Earlier WFES/SAIS series were published as Recasting Europe’s Economies: National Strategies in the 1980s (1990), From the Atlantic to the Urals: National Perspectives on the New Europe (1992), and France in the New European and World Order (1993). Studies on ltaly, the Franco-German alliance, and future transatlantic relations will follow in the next few years.
For “Germany in the New Europe,” we invited five Germans —three academic scholars (Ludger Kühnhardt, Hans-Peter Schwarz and Kurt Sontheimer), an expert on the economy (Norbert Walter), and a diplomat (Klaus Blech). In the opening essay, Blech reflects on the East-West dimension of unified Germany’s national identity and interest, how the older and younger generations are affected differently by it, and how it bears on Germany’s geopolitical position and responsibilities. Kurt Sontheimer follows by assessing how well the German political system has met the challenge of unification. Norbert Walter examines the declining competitiveness of the German economy and proposes broad remedies. Hans-Peter Schwarz relates the needs of the new Germany to the evolving European Union and argues that Maastricht was a false turning. Ludger Kühnhardt finishes with the new Germany’s security interests, in particular the need to establish stability in eastern Europe by enlarging Western institutions. A critical introduction notes main points and contrasts among the essays, and speculates on the new “German Problem” that they reveal.
The essays were presented during the spring 1995 semester at SAIS and revised in the early summer. Funding was arranged through the Washington Foundation for European Studies, thanks to a generous grant from the Thyssen Foundation, with additional support from the European Commission, NATO, the Johns Hopkins Alumni Association, and SAIS. All of us in SAIS European Studies are extremely grateful. The project has made a significant contribution to our teaching and scholarship and should be useful to others as well.
We also wish to thank Tracy Dolan of the SAIS Review, with which we are happy to collaborate for a second time, and Cole Frates, a recent SAIS graduate, who managed with devotion, intelligence, and spirit the seminars and lectures, and also relations with the Washington Foundation for European Studies. Chris Loewald and Aaron Brady helped with the revisions and editing. We wish also to thank the members of our expert seminars and the students of European Studies at SAIS, whose lively discussions have been a major contribution to the whole process. And, finally, we wish to thank our authors, who have contributed with dedication and participated with good humor, and whose presence among us has, itself, been a significant contribution.
David P. Calleo (Introduction and co-editor) is Dean Acheson Professor and Director of European Studies at...