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The stream macroalgal floras of two proximate, high-quality stream valleys (Hanakapi'ai and Limahuli) located on the northern quadrant of the Hawaiian island of Kaua'i were inventoried and compared on a watershed scale, providing interesting insight into Hawai'iÕs potential taxonomic diversity and the influential role played by physical factors in shaping community characteristics. A total of 26 species of macroalgae (five Cyanophyta, 18 Chlorophyta, one Rhodophyta, and two Chromophyta) was identified, of which only eight were common to both streams. Chlorophyta composed the majority of macroalgal taxa identified (63.2% in Hanakapõ'ai Stream and 66.7% in Limahuli Stream). Three macroalgal species are new records for Hawai'i and one (Chamaesiphon curvatus var. elongatum Nordst.) is a Hawaiian endemic. Significant differences in the macroalgal densities between Hanakapõ'ai and Limahuli Streams (Chlorophyta versus Chromophyta, respectively) were attributed to measured differences in riparian canopy cover (34.8% versus 70.0% closed, respectively). Significantly lower densities of macroalgal species in riffle-run habitats in Hanakapi'ai as compared with Limahuli Stream were potentially explainable by "top-down" control by robust populations of native herbivorous fish species.