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Antennatus linearis is described as a new species of frogfish (family Antennariidae) from three specimens from the Hawaiian Islands, one from the Molucca Islands, one from Aldabra, and four from Mozambique and Natal, South Africa, the largest 60 mm standard length. It is distinct from the wide-ranging Indo-Pacific A. tuberosus in having a caudal peduncle, 9-10 instead of 11-12 (rarely 10) pectoral rays, usually all or all but one of the pectoral rays branched (usually all simple in A. tuberosus), longer and more widely spaced dermal spicules, and a longer second dorsal spine (10.5-13.4% SL, compared with 6.5-9.8% for A. tuberosus). It differs from the eastern Pacific A. strigatus and the Japanese A. flagellatus in having the illicium 1.55-1.95 times longer than the second dorsal spine (about equal to the second spine in A. strigatus, and about 3.6 times longer in A. flagellatus). It differs from all three species in its striking pattern of curving dark lines on the head and body.