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Adaptation fund, need for, 163 Adaptation technologies, 99 Agreements: environmental, 142–43; trade, 123, 160, 164; vs. treaties, 129; violations of, 127. See also General agreement; Multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs) Agriculture: border tax adjustments for, 14t; carbon content of exports, 11t; effects of European policies on prices and output, 18t; effects of U.S. policies on prices and output, 22t; in G-cubed model, 4t; GHG emission-reducing technologies in, 96t; leakage of emissions to, 26; market access in, developing countries’ demands for, 153, 155; sources of global investment in, 101t; U.S. subsidies for, 174 Aldy, J. E., 83 Aluminum industry: Annex I countries’ exports to U.S., 40n13; border tax adjustments targeting, 77, 81; Chinese exports to U.S., 39; competitiveness concerns for, 35n2, 71; effects of carbon pricing on, 71n2, 85t; energy consumption in, 9, 23; GHG emissions-reducing technologies in, 96t; Kyoto Protocol and, 77; share of U.S. GDP and employment, 40n15 Annex I countries: barriers to technology transfer, 105, 106t, 112; carbon coalition comprising, 25; definition of, 100n21; global investment in, 101, 101t; leakage rates from, 37n3, 38n6; share of global GHG emissions, 114; U.S. imports from, 40, 40n13 Antidumping cases, 80 Arctic ice cap, melting of, 134 Argentina, Kyoto Protocol and, 135 Articles of Confederation, U.S., 141 Association of Southeast Asian Nations: Free Trade Area of, 123; opposition to Committee on Trade and the Environment, 148 Australia: carbon content of goods produced in, 11t; effects of European carbon taxes/BTAs on, 15t–17t; effects of U.S. carbon taxes/BTAs on, 19t–21t; energy sources in, 77; in Major Emitters’ Group, 124, 158 Bali Action Plan, 110 Barba, Ricardo, 149n30 Barton, John H., 93n1 Bauer, Steffen, 143 Biermann, Frank, 143, 151n33, 152n37 Bingaman-Specter Bill (S 1766), 2, 72 Biofuels: as climate change mitigation technology , 95t, 97, 102; developing countries and, 102, 103t, 129; global investment in, 102; jatropha-based, 98, 102–03; U.S. subsidies of, 78 Blair, Tony, 174 Border penalties: appropriate, 81; avoidance tactics, 38, 88; climate change regime and, 131, 163; constructive element in, 131–32; inappropriate, 81–82; independent panels of experts needed for, 78, 81; intermediate, 82; leakage of carbon emissions and, 36, 37–38; multilateral guidelines on, need for, 78–80; possible application by EU, 73–74; 185 Index Page numbers followed by the letters f and t refer to figures and tables, respectively. 09-0289-6 ch09 index:Layout 1 7/1/09 3:33 PM Page 185 possible application by U.S., 72; potential disruptive element in, 132; principles for designing, 76–78, 80–82; WTO law on, 26, 36–37, 41–54, 74–76, 80. See also Border tax adjustments (BTAs) Border tax adjustments (BTAs), 1, 71; administrative challenges associated with, 25, 38n6, 48, 52; arguments for, 1–2; avoidance tactics, 38, 88; benefits vs. costs of, 37–41, 59; under cap-and-trade system, 36, 38–39, 40, 42, 50, 60; China’s energy intensity and, 14t; competitiveness vs. environmental rationale for, 36, 52n63; complexities of computation of, 23, 45–46; computation of, 9–12; cost to consumers, 45n32; effects on carbon emissions, 13–14, 15t, 18–19, 19t; effects on current accounts, 14–15, 17t, 21t; effects on European prices and output, 16–17, 18t; effects on exchange rates, 15, 17t, 21, 21t; effects on GDP, 13, 15t, 18, 19t; effects on interest rates, 14, 16t, 20, 20t; effects on trade balances , 14–15, 16t, 20, 20t; effects on U.S. prices and output, 22, 22t; emissions allowances and, 86; evaluations of effectiveness of, 2–3, 23, 24, 26, 36, 37–38, 52; free allocation of emissions allowances as alternative to, 37, 54; Global Environmental Organization (GEO) and, 145; political impact of, 40–41; and protectionism, risk of, 41, 52, 78; and retaliatory trade wars, risk of, 26, 27, 41, 54, 176; simulations of effects of, 12–22; size of carbon coalition and impact of, 25; targets of, recommendations for, 81; U.S. energy intensity and, 14t; WTO law on, 26, 36–37, 41–54, 74–76, 80 Boxer, Barbara, 60 Boxer-Lieberman-Warner Bill (S 3036), 60, 61, 80n25, 86n8 Brainard, Lael, 124n2 Brazil: barriers to trade...

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Additional Information

ISSN
1534-0635
Print ISSN
1520-5479
Pages
pp. 185-198
Launched on MUSE
2009-07-26
Open Access
No
Archive Status
Archived 2012
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