Mention of ancient makeup, allusions to its associations, and its connection to female beauty are scattered throughout Latin literature. It may seem a minor, even unimportant concern, but nonetheless one from which we may recover aspects of women's historical experience and knowledge of women as cultural actors. The present study is concerned solely with cosmetics and what impact they may have had on women's realities and on perceptions of women. Although the evidence I collect and present here is mainly literary, evidence of material remains is given where possible. This study is intended as a detailed look at cosmetic substance.