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142 Reviews and cultural initiatives taken by intellectuals like Panayotis Kanellopoulos. On the whole I think the contemporary political scene is far too sketchily set out in this book. A much more detailed argument would be needed to carry the point. We are too much on the surface when we are told, for instance, that the Metaxas regime was under King George's control (137), and we are in danger of assessing wrongly if we find particularly significant what the clandestine newspaper Ελευθεϕία wrote in January 1942 (179-180). It is also too superficial to quote British ambassador Sir Sydney Waterlow (no reference given, however) from an article written in 1947 as evidence for the breakdown and corruption of bourgeois society in the years preceding the Metaxas takeover . But these critical remarks should not detract from the value of a work whose strength clearly lies in the ideological and literary analysis of the writers dealt with. There is much valuable material to be found here; however, the author has not completely succeeded in combining literary analysis with historical interpretation. A useful appendix lists a representative selection of relevant texts, often from periodicals hard to obtain even in Greece. Ole L. Smith University of Gothenburg Alice Yotopoulos-Marangopoulos, The Peculiarities of Female Criminality and their Causes: A Human Rights Perspective. London: Esperia Publications. 1992. Pp. 174. This monograph is one in a series published or planned by the Marangopoulos Foundation for Human Rights. The author, a criminologist by profession, is president of the foundation and active in furthering women's rights. A comparative study of female criminality in European countries, this volume provides a mass of statistical data comparing male and female criminality both in quantitative terms and in terms of the nature of the crimes committed by gender. Three basic questions are asked: Why is female criminality far less than male criminality? Why are the criminal acts committed by females far less serious than those committed by males? Has the women's liberation movement resulted in an increase in female criminality? Lastly, Marangopoulos asks whether one consequence of continued change in the role and position of women will be an increase in crimes committed by women. Unfortunately, this study, while valuable as a statistical and theoretical survey, is both difficult to read and methodologically flawed. The first two chapters, which deal with quantitative and qualitative differences in female criminality, consist largely of tables from Western countries such as Greece, England, Sweden, the United States, the Federal Republic of Germany, Reviews 143 France, and Italy, with some textual comments. Even as a statistical comparison , the study is of limited usefulness since the author does not set out the criteria on the basis of which she selected the countries to be compared, other than "Europe," and since the actual countries compared are not the same in the two chapters. Moreover, in the second chapter, which looks at the gravity of crimes committed by women in contrast to those committed by men, the tables are not comparable, since the data are often for different crimes in different countries. For Greece, for example, in comparison to the U.S.A, France and Germany, no data are presented on the number of murders committed by women. The third question that Marangopoulos poses, namely whether there has been an increase in female criminality as a consequence of the feminist movement, is a particularly interesting and significant one. Although one should be cautious about the validity of the statistical data relevant to this question, nevertheless the evidence she cites does seem to indicate, as she states, some increase in the number of crimes by females particularly in the 1970s, although again the country data are not comparable. Interestingly, Greece, by contrast with other European countries, experienced a rise in the number of crimes committed by women later, specifically in the late 1980s. After statistically substantiating her claim that female criminality is far less frequent and severe than male criminality, consisting as it does primarily of property crimes such as forged checks, petty thefts, and verbal abuse, and after presenting minimal evidence for an increase in recent decades, the author shifts to a review of the various theories that...


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