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Reviews 161 George A. Yiannakopoulos deals with the library holdings of the Greek Literary Association of Constantinople. The Association, formed in 1863 and forcibly abandoned in 1922, was instrumental in promoting the intellectual development and in nourishing the ethnic consciousness of the Greek population of Asia Minor. Michael Cosmopoulos surveys the articles published in the Annual of the British School in Athens between 1894 and 1985 that focus on the history and archeology of Asia Minor. Finally, one should mention an informative review essay on what has been written by Stavros Th. Anestides on Joachim III, Ecumenical Patriarch during the years 1878-1884 and 1901— 1912. The contents of this issue of the Bulletin include a text by Serapheim Rizos entitled "Agasses." Readers who will not have read the editorial note that precedes this volume's contents and who are not specialists will not know who or what this is about. A note about the author and, indeed, some information about all the contributors would have enhanced this fine scholarly journal. Alexander Kitroeff New York University Wendy Moleas, The Development of the Greek Language. New Rochelle, New York: Aristide D. Caratzas/Bristol, England: Bristol Classical Press, 1989. Pp. 118. $16.00. This "introductory book" is part of the series Studies in Modern Greek published by Bristol Classical Press under the editorship of Niki Watts. As the series editor states in the preface, "the Series has been specifically designed to cater for the needs of those studying for GCE Ά' level Modern Greek in the UK and undergraduates in the UK, Australia and the USA." For the readers who may not know, the GCE Ά level means university entrance examinations in the UK; one assumes, therefore, that the series caters for students who are completing their secondary education in that country. Moleas's book seems to fit that description, since the author, in her preface, thanks "the governors of Manchester High School for Girls" for giving her a three month sabbatical leave "to study for myself the development of the Greek language." Hence, the question: how appropriate is such a book for university Modern Greek undergraduates? The author states in her preface: "I hope that the book will also be read by non-classicists. Apart from the purely linguistic information, all other sections of the book are self-explanatory and all the extracts have been translated." One of the first difficulties, however, that confronts both the "non-classicist" and "non-linguist" is indeed the "purely linguistic information"—for example: "the tenses of the indicative mark the notion of time but the tenses of the subjunctive and imperative, 162 Reviews and the optative and infinitive when not in indirect statement, differ in aspect rather than in time" (p. 14). What makes this "pure" information even more obtuse is the paucity of language examples illustrating these meta-linguistic points. When some are given, they appear without any English or Modern Greek glosses for those uninitiated in classical Greek. For example: "a 3rd person middle ending in -τολ, was spoken in the central Péloponnèse and in Cyprus"; "the change from a to e in the Attic dialect was inhibited after ε, ι and Ï•, as in the examples οικία and θϕϕα"; "the dual number, originally used for things going in pairs, remained common in Attic Greek but generally became increasingly rare except in poetry"; "changes within words were made to avoid displeasing [sic] sounds and so in Attic Greek τιμάω is changed to τιμώ. Such changes as that of Î-δωκε εκείνο to Î-δωκεν εκείνο . . . were made for the same reason" (pp. 10-13). The book is divided in five chapters each followed by a section with notes and bibliographical references; appendices on Linear B, the Greek alphabet, Indo-European languages, and the pronunciation of Modern Greek; a bibliography for Chapter One (Language, Historical and Cultural Background ) and for Chapters Two to Five (The Greek Language, Anthologies and Translations, Literary Criticism, Historical and Cultural Background). Chapter One is entitled "Prehistoric and Ancient Greek," which is covered sweepingly and generally. Generalizations left unqualified include: "city-states developed different types of political system but all were, nevertheless, linked by their shared religion, customs and language" (p. 8). Which religion? Which customs? Which language? There is no other mention of...


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