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Reviews 343 chief Hamhougias, who was granted—most exceptionally—a second amnesty in May 1845 because he "had been prevented by unavoidable circumstances from giving himself up to the authorities" in time for the first one (p. 121)?; or discuss the activities of the irregulars who were sent to Thessaly in 1878 by irredentist activists with inadequate funds, with the result that they "robbed without fear of punishment those they had gone to liberate" (p. 204)? Koliopoulos' work raises further issues: to what extent did demographic and economic factors contribute to the decline of brigandage ? How did politicians from the Péloponnèse regard their Rumeliot colleagues? What factors underlay the reorganization of the regular army after 1896? If these and other questions are answered with half the erudition displayed in Brigands with a Cause we shall be most fortunate. Mark Mazower Princeton University Olga Katsiardi-Hering, H Ελληνική Παϕοικία της ΤεϕγÎ-στης, 17511830 . Athens: National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, School of Philosophy. 1986. Pp. 761 (2 volumes). Strategically located at the head of the Adriatic Sea, Trieste remained in the shadow of Venetian economic and maritime power in the middle ages. To escape the menace of its powerful neighbor, the city placed itself under Habsburg authority. But it became a major port only in the 18th century as Austrian political and economic power grew in southeastern Europe. The destiny of the city and its residents then, was bound up with the fortunes and development of the Habsburgs and their state. So it was for the Greeks who migrated there and formed a colony in the mid-18th century. This detailed monograph , a Ph.D. dissertation at the University of Athens, uses a wide range of primary sources to examine the social life and economic development of one of the more successful nazioni that made up the city's cosmopolitan society. The author chooses the term "colony" to make a clear distinction between the coming of Greeks to Trieste, their economic activities there and the body of institutions they created when they formally became a community. Her study weaves together accounts of the larger historical currents which affected the Greek presence in the city, the 344 Reviews functioning of their various community institutions, and their economic progress. There is material here for students of both macroand micro-history, though the author remains focused on the Greek community when relating it to the larger world. Trieste may be seen as a geographic fulcrum for the political and economic relationships between western and eastern Europe in the 18th century. It was more than a point of rest, of course, for it provided a dynamism of its own. The lever for those relationships was certainly the rationalizing power of the Austrian state. That lever became more formidable with the Treaty of Passarowitz in 1718, when both the Ottoman Empire and Venice were forced to give up territory and acknowledge the power of the Habsburgs in southeastern Europe. The author notes the rationalist, paternalistic and authoritarian policies that Maria Theresa and her son Joseph used to increase the political and economic strength of their state. Ironically, because the requisite economic talent was not available to develop Austrian trade in the Mediterranean, the Habsburgs resorted to inducing the subjects of the Ottoman Empire to take up residence in the West where they were offered religious toleration, lower tariff rates and a free port. This led to a dyadic tension as Greek citizens of the Habsburg Monarchy competed with compatriots who were Ottoman subject and the Greek Orthodox asserted their identity v^à -vL· the Slavic Orthodox in Trieste. Neither phenomenon was unique to Trieste, of course. But with some good primary sources, the author is able to discuss these developments against the backdrop of the dramatic changes of Enlightenment and Revolutionary/Napoleonic Europe. Anyone familiar with the life of ethnic communities, whether in the Old World or New, in the last 200 years will note similarities in the Trieste koinotita. But there are some variations to the pattern. The Greeks' desire to have priests who spoke their own language in Trieste was partly a reaction to the growing influence of the Serbian Orthodox metropolitanate at Karlowitz as the number of...


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pp. 343-345
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