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188 Reviews in the prewar political and social order which swept the country during the years of enemy occupation. But whatever its weaknesses, this is a highly original, uninhibited, stimulating and very readable account of major turning points in the history of modern Greece. It is also a reference work of lasting value on matters pertaining to the Greek navy. John O. Iatrides Southern Connecticut State University Richard Clogg, Parties and Elections in Greece: The Search for Legitimacy. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press. 1987. Pp. 268. Cloth $38.95. Paper $15.95. Richard Clogg, Reader of Modern Greek History at King's College , London, is well equipped to examine post-war political phenomena in Greece—the country with the longest parliamentary tradition in southern Europe. His interests range from the Karamanlides (Christian Orthodox people of Asia Minor who wrote Turkish texts with Greek characters) to recent developments in Greek politics, which he often analyzes in the British journal, The World Today. In this book he does not focus on the 19th century roots of Greek parliamentary politics but on the arduous post-war process of reestablishing democracy , both in form and in spirit, after the interval of Metaxas, occupation and civil war. Clogg carefully traces the intermittent process of democratic regeneration and makes no bones about his own position on the matter. The first chapter deals with the history of Greek constitutions, parties and parliament and includes sixteen pages on the essential aspects of political developments in the 19th and first half of the 20th centuries. Chapters two and three analyze post-war elections (including the one of 1985), four through seven deal with the profile of the Greek political parties and chapter eight covers electoral systems and post-war plebiscites. The work is also richly endowed with appendices that include documents concerning the positions of the major parties, economic indicators, electoral maps and consolidated results of national elections held between 1946-1985. This alone would suffice to make the work a valuable handbook for any student of Greek politics and a memoryaid for those who witnessed the period in question. But the book offers much more. The author, whose stake in democratic rule was Reviews 189 exhibited during the junta years, is not simply a disinterested onlooker. He speaks for a polity of virtue and reports that in the years since 1974 democratic principles have passed a series of tests with flying colors. According to Clogg, although the 'dictatorial deviation' of 1967-74 attempted to stem the tide of political modernization, it did in fact unwittingly create a consensus among Greek political forces which led to key changes. He writes: ". . . the remarkably smooth transition from authoritarian rule to a genuinely pluralistic democracy signified a crucial stage in the development of parties in Greece" (p. 216). The handing over of power by the conservatives to the socialists in 1981 constituted the acid test of democratization. This reviewer would like to raise certain minor questions in tribute to the author's impressive collection of data and information. The Ethnikon Enotikon Komma was founded by P. Kanellopoulos before the war and in 1950 was headed by both its founder and St. Stephanopoulos (p. 32). The text leaves one with the impression that the leadership of this party belonged to Stephanopoulos alone. Mikhail Stasinopoulos was appointed, not elected, acting-President of the Republic in 1974 (p. 66). Clogg believes that the spirit of Raramanlis' constitutional craft of 1974—which aspired to create a system of bipolar executive power (shared by the head of state and the head of the government)—was in essence preserved in the constitution promulgated in June 1975. Raramanlis initially aspired to create a Presidential Republic with the intention of occupying the high office. His original draft was, however, fraught with contradictions and was also faced with the loud outcry of the opposition. Ultimately, Raramanlis abandoned his plan for a powerful presidency and setded for a constitution that made parliament the major source of power and legitimacy . Instead of pursuing the position of the President, he chose to remain Prime Minister, at least until 1980. Thanos Veremis University of Athens Stanley Aschenbrenner, Life in a Changing Greek Village: Karpofora...


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