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Reviews 185 and the fragile, brine drenched ships, / Love is the other ship of stone, the untraveled yet thousand times traveled ship on the highest seas" (p. 21). Love's adds the "inner seas" (p. 26), the "immortal water" (p. 20). Finally "The distant comes obediently, looks at you sideways. ... It was precisely then we learned that nothing had been lost" (p. 38). It is with this statement of faith that Monovasia concludes. Creative love evaluates and transcends history in its eternal repetition; it transcends time and life itself. The readers of the two translated poems in this volume are privileged to have the inspired, faithful and skillful rendering by Friar and Myrsiades, their work constitutes as substantial contribution to the enjoyment and appreciation of Ritsos by Greekless admirers and devotees. Andonis Decavalles Fairleigh Dickünson University Stylianos J. Haratsis, 1023 Αξιωματικοί καί 22 Κινήματα. Athens. Volume 1. 1985. Pp. 352. Volume II 1987. Pp. 581. The interventionist role of the military in the politics of modern Greece is a subject of major significance which has been extensively explored and documented in recent historical studies. Understandably , such scholarly treatment focuses mainly on the motives and activities of the principal rebellious or loyalist officers, while their followers remain for the most part nameless numbers. This practice tends to obscure the human element in such upheavals and depersonalizes events which are, in the final analysis, manifestations of highly personal and emotional motivations. The student of 20th century Greece therefore welcomes the publication of Stylianos J. Haratsis ' 1023 Officers and 22 Coups. This book traces the involvement in political "anomalies" of all the men who graduated from the Greek Naval Academy (Σχολή Εαυτικών Δοκίμων), beginning with the entering class of 1884 and ending with that of 1951. The author, himself a graduate of the academy (entering class of 1951), considers it inappropriate to expand his study to include younger naval officers, many of whom are still on active duty. Dedicating his highly original work to his brother officers, "but primarily to those . . . who never mutinied," he expresses the hope that the newer graduates will shun the adventurism and lawless violence which characterized the careers of so many of their seniors. This, therefore, is not only a political 186 Reviews history of the Greek navy, a "who is who" and "who did what," but also a bold commentary on the ills of Greek military discipline, politics and society. One need not agree with every characterization and conclusion to find in them more than a kernel of wisdom and common sense. In addition, the writing is always lively and often reads like the script for an action-filled movie. Haratsis' massive study is based on an impressive variety of published and unpublished sources, Greek and non-Greek, which include memoirs, government archives, press accounts, and a large number of interviews with key figures in the events described. It is meticulously documented and the appendices offer interesting insights into the family origins and linkages of Greek naval officers. Not surprisingly, a high percentage of them are Athens-born, and the sons of professional men and of socially prominent parents; many left the service to enter politics. The book leaves no doubt that the Greek naval officers constitute a small, tightly-knit (although at times bitterly splintered) elitist group whose contributions to their country's history go far beyond their roles as commanders of warships. The 22 coups and mutinies studied span the period from August 1909 (the Goudi affair) to November 1973 (Papadopoulos' overthrow by fellow-juntist Ioannides). Each episode is placed in its immediate historical setting, which often broadens the scope of inquiry to include international developments. In a number of instances, the navy's involvement in a crisis is at best a minor factor and the author strains to justify its inclusion in this study. As a result, the practical usefulness of Haratsis' research for the historian fluctuates greatly, as does the depth of his analysis of Greek political developments. His account is particularly informative on the revolt of September 1922, the KoIialexis coup of August 1924, the failed Venizelist coup of March 1935, and the near-chaos surrounding the navy's flight to the Middle East in April 1941...


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