Through a greenhouse experiment, we found that smoke-water can be an effective restoration tool in germinating bear-grass (Xerophyllum tenax (Pursh) Nutt. [Liliaceae]) seeds. We studied the effects of smoke-water on germination rates of beargrass seeds collected from low-elevation dry forests of the southeastern Olympic Peninsula of Washington State and from a wetland of the western Peninsula. Seeds received a treatment of either smoke-water or tap water (the control), which was followed by a cold stratification treatment for 0, 8, 10, 12, 14, or 16 wk. The highest success of beargrass seed germination resulted from seeds collected from the wetland habitat being exposed to smoke-water prior to undergoing 14 wk of cold stratification. This study supports the use of smoke technology in restoration when the reintroduction of burning is not feasible.


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pp. 13-20
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