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The “Tale of the Pious Man and His Chaste Wife” is both ancient and widespread in international tradition. So far, the oldest version of the tale that has been found is documented in the German Kaiserchronik, dating from the twelfth century. Consequently, previous scholarship has tended to argue for the tale’s Western origin. By drawing on a variety of Arabic and Persian sources, this essay proves to the contrary that the tale originated from Near Eastern literatures and probably goes back ultimately to a Jewish source.