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Abstract

The primary purpose of this research is to collate, compare, and discuss the presently available data for head and face dimensions among Korean and Japanese ethnic groups. Classification of Korean male and female head and face types is simpler than classification of Japanese subjects. Male groups have more statistically significant morphological differences than females, and Japanese subjects display larger values for head and face measurement categories than Korean subjects. Japanese item values for head and face dimensions show distinct differences between male and female subjects compared to Korean subjects. Japanese male subjects have distinct differences from Korean male subjects and relatively lower values for head and face dimensions as age increases compared to Korean male subjects. Generally, female subjects have no regular tendency according to age compared to male subjects.

Keywords

Head Anthropometry, Face Anthropometry, Koreans, Japanese

Anthropometric data are an important factor in the design of new products. Anthropometric head and face measurements can be used in a variety of product and facility design applications, such as hat and helmet design, the design of protective masks and goggles, and the design of frames for glasses (Park et al. 2004; Milton Alexander and Emanuel 1961).

Many people of Asian descent bear superficial resemblance to others of Asian heritage, especially in the areas of face and head shape; however, the reality is that head and face shapes differ between individuals of different national heritage. It is imperative to consider these differences in the areas of object, system, and environmental design.

The Korean data were randomly collected in Daejeon, South Korea, and the Japanese data were collected in Ueda, Japan. These samples do not represent all Korean and Japanese populations. According to Kohama (1969), the Japanese population can be classified into two main groups: Tohoku Japanese and Kinai Japanese. The Tohoku Japanese reside mainly in northeastern Japan from Tohoku [End Page 313] to Hokuriku, and the Kinai Japanese’ main residential area is the Kinai district, distributing eastward to the Tokai district and westward to the coast of the Seto Inland Sea to Tsushima Island. Kinai Japanese are more similar to Koreans than Tohoku Japanese are.

Choi et al. (1996) investigated Korean face types and classified them into two types: a northern type and a southern type within South Korea. The northern type has a long face and nose and thin lips, and the southern type has a round face, a high and wide nose, and thick lips. However, there is another middle type in Chungcheong-do, including Daejeon. Nagano district, which includes Ueda, is in the middle of the Kinai-Tohoku district in Japan. Daejeon is in central South Korea. According to Kim et al. (1997), there was no significant difference in the distribution of dimensions between Daejeon and the Seoul-Gyeonggi district, except for waist girth. These samples were based on the assumption that this area represents the middle face type for both regions.

Kohama (1969) investigated similarities between individuals of Korean and Japanese descent, but his work mainly concentrated on subjects’ body measurements, and only six measurement parameters were recorded pertaining to face and head shape.

Although recent investigations have evaluated differences in head and face shape between Chinese and Americans (Wang et al. 1997; Sim et al. 2000), available anthropometric data for inter-Asian comparisons are insufficient (Gross and Bradtmiller 1999), and few comparisons of Korean and Japanese head and face shapes have been performed. Yoon and Jung (2002) concluded that more caution should be used in applying Japanese data to Korean data.

The primary purpose of this research is to collate, compare, and discuss presently available data for head and face dimensions among Korean and Japanese ethnic groups based on sex and age stratification. It is hoped that the synopsis will serve as the basis for more suitable product design and will illuminate the differences in head and face dimensions between individuals of Korean and Japanese nationality.

Materials and Methods

Subjects participating in this study were recruited from Daejeon, Chungcheong- do, South Korea, and from Ueda, Nagano, Japan. The subject group consisted of 550 individuals, 20 to 60 years of age. Subjects were divided into three age group categories: individuals between 20 and 39 years of age, individuals between 40 and 59 years of age, and individuals 60 years of age or older. The 20–39- year-old category was composed of 76 females and 67 males; the 40–59-year-old category was composed of 48 females and 30 males; and the 60 years and older category was composed of 27 male and 27 female individuals (see Table 1). Height and weight data were collected from each subject and are presented in Table 1. All data were collected between 2004 and 2005. [End Page 314]

Table 1

Age-Class Category Sample Sizes and Mean Height (in cm) and Weight (in kg) of Study Subjects

Group Sex 20–39 Years Old 40–59 Years Old 60 Years Old and Older Total
N Height (SD) Weight (SD) N Height (SD) Weight (SD) N Height (SD) Weight (SD) N Height (SD) Weight (SD)
Koreans Male 67 172.0 (8.0) 68.0 (11.7) 30 166.8 (8.2) 66.7 (8.7) 27 163.6 (6.1) 63.1 (9.1) 124 168.9 (8.4) 66.6 (10.6)
Female 76 159.0 (6.7) 55.4 (7.9) 48 156.5 (4.9) 59.7 (7.2) 27 152.4 (5.9) 59.7 (7.5) 151 157.0 (6.5) 57.5 (7.9)
Japanese Male 67 171.7 (5.6) 63.1 (10.7) 30 169.0 (4.2) 68.0 (9.5) 27 165.5 (6.8) 63.8 (10.2) 124 169.7 (6.1) 64.4 (10.4)
Female 76 159.1 (5.4) 52.5 (7.9) 48 157.3 (5.4) 53.6 (6.7) 27 154.8 (5.4) 56.7 (7.2) 151 157.7 (5.6) 53.6 (7.5)

[End Page 315]

Table 2

Head and Face Dimensions Selected for Measurement and Analysis for the Comparison of Korean and Japanese Head and Face Anthropometric Characteristics

Abbreviation Anatomical Surface Region and Anthropometric Measurement
BMI Body mass index
TH Total head height
RTV Right tragion to vertex height
LTV Left tragion to vertex height
REV Right ectocanthion to vertex height
LEV Left ectocanthion to vertex height
SVH Stomion to vertex height
MFH Morphologic face height (sellion to promenton height)
HL Head length
ORE Occiput to right ectocanthion distance
OLE Occiput to left ectocanthion distance
OS Occiput to stomion distance
ORT Occiput to right tragion distance
OLT Occiput to left tragion distance
HB Head breadth
BB Bitragion breadth
HC Head circumference
SA Sagittal arc
BA Bitragion arc
BIGB Bigonial breadth
NH Nose height
NB Nose breadth
MB Mouth breadth
ID Interpupillary distance

A three-dimensional laser-scanning array (I-Ware Laboratory Co., Ltd., Osaka, Japan) was used to precisely measure head shape, and these measurements were used in conjunction with software (Head measurement, I-Ware Laboratory Co., Ltd) to create digital surface maps of each subject’s head. Subjects were required to wear a spandex cap and light clothing to reduce interference with measurements.

Twenty-three measurement parameters (Table 2) were selected for comparison, using the SPSS 10.0 statistical analysis package and the independent t test for head and face dimensions. Head shapes were compared using ANOVA, K-mean cluster analysis, and hierarchical clustering.

Results

To compare Korean and Japanese male head and face dimensions according to age, we used an independent sample t test (Table 3). Most items for the 20–39- year-old males showed statistically significant differences between the Korean and [End Page 316] Japanese groups, except for six items (height, ORE, OLE, OS, HC, SA). Only five items (weight, BMI, BIGB, ORT, OLT) of Korean male subjects were larger than those for the Japanese groups. BA showed the largest difference between Korean and Japanese male subjects. For the 40–59-year-old group, most items showed statistically significant differences between the Korean and Japanese male subjects, with the exception of nine items (height, weight, BMI, MFH, OS, HC, SA, BIGB, NH). Only two items (ORT and OLT) of Korean male subjects were larger than those for Japanese males. BA, MB, and LTV showed the largest differences between Korean and Japanese male subjects. Almost all items for the 60+ age group showed statistically significant differences between Korean and Japanese male subjects, except for height, weight, BMI, HL, OS, HB, BB, HC, BIGB, and ID. Only three items (ORT, OLT, and SA) of Korean male subjects were larger than those for Japanese male subjects. NB showed the largest difference between Korean and Japanese male subjects.

We used ANOVA for an age comparison of head and face dimensions. The dimensions that displayed statistically significant differences among age groups in male Koreans were height (F = 12.8, p < 0.000), HL (F = 4.0, p < 0.05), ORE (F = 4.6, p < 0.01), OLE (F = 5.9, p < 0.01), OS (F = 3.1, p < 0.05), HB (F = 3.5, p < 0.05), BIGB (F = 3.1, p < 0.05), NH (F = 3.9, p < 0.05), and NB (F = 5.2, p < 0.01). The dimensions that displayed statistically significant differences among age groups in Japanese male subjects were height (F = 12.3, p < 0.000), TH (F = 4.4, p < 0.01), REV (F = 3.6, p < 0.05), LEV (F = 3.4, p < 0.05), HL (F = 6.4, p < 0.01), OS (F = 8.7, p < 0.000), ORT (F = 4.8, p < 0.01), OLT (F = 5.1, p < 0.01), HB (F = 7.8, p < 0.001), HC (F = 3.3, p < 0.05), SA (F = 18.7, p < 0.000), BIGB (F = 9.1, p < 0.000), NB (F = 9.5, p < 0.000), and ID (F = 31.9, p < 0.000). The data (height, HL, OS, HB, BIGB, and NB) show that in both Korean and Japanese male subjects, height decreased with increasing age. In the 40–59-year-old group and the 60+ age group, BIGB and NB values were higher than those for the 20–39-year-old group.

The remaining items in the 20–39-year-old group showed higher values. For Korean male subjects, ORE and NH showed significant differences according to age, but there was no significant relationship between these values in Japanese male subjects. For Japanese male subjects, TH, REV, LEV, ORT, OLT, HC, SA, and NH showed significant differences according to age, and these values showed a tendency to decrease with increasing age.

In a comparison of Korean and Japanese female head and face dimensions by age, we used an independent sample t test (Table 4). For the 20–39-year-old females, height, MFH, HL, ORE, OLE, OS, BB, and NB did not show statistically significant differences between the Korean and Japanese groups. The Korean group had higher values for only seven items (weight, BMI, ORT, OLT, BIGB, HC, and SA). LTV and RTV showed a large difference between Korean and Japanese female subjects.

Most items for the 40–59-year-old females showed statistically significant differences between Korean and Japanese groups, except for six items (height, [End Page 317] MFH, HL, ORE, OLE, and SA). The 40–59-year-old Korean female subjects had higher values in eight categories (weight, BMI, OS, ORT, OLT, BB, HC, and BIGB) than the Japanese female subjects. RTV and LTV showed a large difference between Korean and Japanese female subjects.

Table 3

Height, Weight, and Head and Face Dimensions (in mm) of Korean and Japanese Male Subjects by Age Group

Parameter 20–39 Years Old 40–59 Years Old 60 Years Old and Older
Korean Mean (SD) Japanese Mean (SD) t Test Value Korean Mean (SD) Japanese Mean (SD) t Test Value Korean Mean (SD) Japanese Mean (SD) t Test Value
Height (cm) 172.0 (8.0) 171.7 (5.6) 0.217 166.8 (8.2) 169.0 (4.2) –1.3 163.6 (6.1) 165.5 (6.8) –1.1
Weight (kg) 68.0 (11.7) 63.1 (10.7) 2.6a 66.7 (8.7) 68.0 (9.5) –0.5 63.1 (9.1) 63.8 (10.2) –0.2
BMI 23.0 (3.6) 21.4 (3.2) 2.7b 24.0 (2.8) 23.8 (3.2) 0.2 23.6 (3.0) 23.2 (2.6) 0.5
TH 230.5 (11.6) 245.8 (8.9) –8.5d 227.3 (12.7) 241.1 (8.4) –5.0d 229.1 (11.1) 241.0 (9.2) –4.3d
RTV 133.1 (7.6) 143.6 (7.0) –8.3d 129.7 (9.3) 142.5 (7.9) –5.7d 131.7 (7.1) 139.8 (8.5) –3.8d
LTV 133.3 (8.0) 144.0 (6.9) –8.3d 129.8 (9.7) 143.0 (7.1) –6.0d 132.8 (7.5) 141.1 (8.5) –3.8d
REV 120.8 (7.5) 131.4 (6.3) –8.9d 117.2 (9.3) 129.4 (7.3) –5.6d 121.0 (8.0) 127.0 (9.1) –2.6a
LEV 121.3 (7.4) 131.6 (6.4) –8.6d 117.8 (9.2) 129.2 (7.6) –5.2d 120.9 (7.9) 127.6 (8.4) –3.0b
SVH 191.9 (9.0) 206.7 (8.5) –9.8d 191.2 (10.9) 204.0 (8.5) –5.1d 193.8 (11.0) 203.8 (10.0) –3.5c
MFH 113.2 (8.0) 119.7 (6.4) –5.2d 115.0 (8.0) 117.6 (6.6) –1.4 112.5 (8.3) 121.1 (5.8) –4.4d
HL 196.3 (9.6) 200.6 (5.8) –3.1b 191.3 (6.7) 198.7 (6.6) –4.3d 193.0 (7.3) 195.3 (7.8) –1.1
ORE 175.2 (9.2) 176.9 (6.9) –1.2 172.0 (6.6) 177.0 (7.0) –2.9b 169.3 (10.4) 174.9 (7.4) –2.3a
OLE 174.1 (9.2) 175.2 (6.1) –0.8 170.1 (6.9) 175.7 (7.2) –3.1b 167.8 (8.9) 172.4 (7.0) –2.1a
OS 186.3 (11.4) 189.6 (8.8) –1.9 180.6 (10.6) 185.8 (10.3) –1.9 181.4 (14.6) 180.6 (11.0) 0.2
ORT 91.6 (9.5) 82.4 (5.6) 6.8d 88.3 (9.1) 79.6 (6.7) 4.2d 88.6 (9.6) 77.9 (9.2) 4.2d
OLT 91.6 (9.5) 82.4 (5.6) 6.9d 88.3 (9.1) 79.5 (6.7) 4.3d 88.4 (9.6) 77.7 (9.3) 4.2d
HB 167.7 (9.2) 172.0 (6.5) –3.1b 163.3 (5.1) 171.1 (7.3) –4.8d 165.1 (6.7) 165.9 (7.0) –0.4
BB 155.1 (6.5) 161.3 (10.3) –4.2d 156.1 (6.1) 161.2 (9.5) –2.5a 154.3 (7.2) 155.8 (10.9) –0.6
HC 606.7 (28.9) 609.6 (22.0) –0.7 601.5 (21.7) 604.8 (17.2) –0.6 595.4 (26.1) 597.1 (24.1) –0.2
SA 382.4 (24.9) 386.6 (12.3) –1.2 380.0 (31.0) 377.9 (17.2) 0.3 386.6 (31.1) 365.7 (19.0) 3.0b
BA 399.5 (27.4) 446.7 (26.0) –10.2d 397.5 (32.7) 446.0 (30.2) –6.0d 406.3 (33.6) 439.9 (52.9) –2.8b
BIGB 127.4 (8.9) 122.6 (10.6) 2.8b 132.2 (8.4) 130.4 (11.4) 0.7 129.8 (9.9) 135.0 (20.9) –1.2
NH 51.7 (4.4) 54.5 (4.6) –3.6d 54.6 (4.7) 53.9 (4.8) 0.6 52.4 (5.2) 55.6 (3.9) –2.5a
NB 34.2 (4.5) 37.7 (3.0) –5.2d 35.1 (4.0) 38.4 (2.5) –3.8d 31.7 (3.1) 40.6 (3.2) –10.3d
MB 44.8 (5.8) 53.3 (4.1) –9.8d 45.9 (5.0) 54.1 (5.5) –6.0d 44.3 (6.8) 55.2 (3.5) –7.3d
ID 62.6 (6.3) 72.5 (5.4) –9.8d 62.1 (5.4) 68.3 (8.2) –3.4c 61.4 (3.4) 60.8 (6.9) 0.5

A dependent t test was used for the comparison.

a. p ≤0.05.

b. p ≤0.01.

c. p ≤0.001.

d. p ≤0.000.

Almost all items for the female 60+ age group showed statistically significant differences between the Korean and Japanese groups, except for 12 items (height, weight, REV, LEV, HL, ORE, OLE, OS, HB, HC, NH, and ID). Only six items (BMI, ORT, OLT, BB, SA, and BIGB) for Korean female subjects were larger than those for the Japanese female subjects. [End Page 318]

We used ANOVA for an age comparison of head and face dimensions. The dimensions that displayed statistically significant differences across age in the female Korean group were height (F = 12.5, p < 0.000), weight (F = 5.9, p < 0.01), BMI (F =20.8, p < 0.000), ORT (F = 3.3, p < 0.05), OLT (F = 3.3, p < 0.05), HB (F = 6.9, p < 0.001), HC (F = 3.4, p < 0.05), BIGB (F = 5.3, p < 0.01), NB (F = 4.5, p < 0.01), NB (F = 4.5, p < 0.01), and ID (F = 3.3, p < 0.05). The dimensions that displayed statistically significant differences among age groups in Japanese female subjects were height (F = 6.4, p < 0.01), weight (F = 3.3, p < 0.05), BMI (F =10.4, p < 0.000), RTV (F = 8.3, p < 0.000), LTV (F = 9.0, p < 0.000), REV [End Page 319]

Table 4

Height, Weight, and Head and Facial Dimensions (in mm) of Korean and Japanese Female Subjects by Age Group

Parameter 20–39 Years Old 40–59 Years Old 60 Years Old and Older
Korean Mean (SD) Japanese Mean (SD) t Test Value Korean Mean (SD) Japanese Mean (SD) t Test Value Korean Mean (SD) Japanese Mean (SD) t Test Value
Height (cm) 159.0 (6.7) 159.1 (5.4) 0.0 156.5 (4.9) 157.3 (5.4) –0.8 152.4 (5.9) 154.8 (5.4) –1.6
Weight (kg) 55.4 (7.9) 52.5 (7.9) 2.3a 59.7 (7.2) 53.6 (6.7) 4.3d 59.7 (7.5) 56.7 (7.2) 1.5
BMI 21.9 (3.0) 20.7 (2.8) 2.6a 24.4 (2.8) 21.7 (3.0) 4.5d 25.7 (3.2) 23.8 (3.6) 2.1a
TH 226.9 (10.2) 235.9 (7.0) –6.4d 226.6 (11.3) 235.3 (7.8) –4.4d 225.8 (8.1) 232.3 (8.8) –2.8b
RTV 132.2 (6.7) 141.6 (5.5) –9.6d 131.0 (8.2) 141.8 (6.0) –7.4d 131.5 (5.1) 136.7 (6.5) –3.2b
LTV 132.7 (7.1) 142.7 (5.5) –9.7d 131.6 (8.0) 142.0 (5.7) –7.3d 131.9 (5.6) 137.3 (6.5) –3.3b
REV 119.8 (7.0) 128.5 (5.6) –8.5d 119.0 (8.2) 129.0 (5.9) –6.9d 121.0 (5.4) 123.6 (7.4) –1.5
LEV 120.5 (7.5) 129.1 (5.5) –8.0d 119.8 (8.2) 129.3 (5.8) –6.5d 121.4 (6.0) 124.8 (6.6) –2.0
SVH 190.1 (8.9) 200.5 (6.3) –8.3d 189.4 (10.4) 200.7 (8.0) –6.0d 190.5 (8.3) 196.7 (8.9) –2.6a
MFH 110.4 (7.2) 111.8 (5.6) –1.3 110.0 (7.1) 111.5 (5.6) –1.2 109.6 (5.7) 114.3 (7.9) –2.5a
HL 190.3 (6.8) 191.6 (7.0) –1.2 188.0 (7.9) 189.5 (6.9) –1.0 188.2 (6.1) 190.4 (5.5) –1.4
ORE 170.5 (8.3) 169.7 (7.9) 0.6 169.5 (8.9) 167.5 (8.6) 1.1 166.1 (8.6) 169.6 (7.5) –1.6
OLE 168.9 (8.6) 168.7 (7.8) 0.1 167.1 (8.9) 166.4 (8.7) 0.4 165.5 (10.4) 169.4 (7.4) –1.6
OS 176.3 (11.7) 175.6 (10.7) 0.3 176.2 (9.9) 170.1 (11.4) 2.8b 176.4 (14.1) 173.9 (8.7) 0.8
ORT 90.9 (8.1) 81.4 (8.6) 7.0d 87.5 (7.5) 75.8 (8.7) 7.1d 87.5 (8.9) 77.7 (8.6) 4.1d
OLT 90.8 (8.1) 81.1 (8.5) 7.2d 87.4 (7.6) 75.8 (8.7) 7.0d 87.5 (9.0) 77.6 (8.6) 4.1d
HB 163.9 (6.6) 166.2 (5.9) –2.3a 159.3 (7.5) 166.7 (6.4) –5.3d 159.9 (8.8) 163.4 (7.3) –1.6
BB 150.2 (7.7) 147.4 (10.7) 1.8 151.5 (6.2) 148.0 (8.5) 2.3a 153.3 (10.8) 145.8 (8.3) 2.9b
HC 595.4 (26.2) 576.2 (16.4) 5.4d 585.1 (25.9) 574.6 (13.1) 2.5a 582.4 (31.3) 574.3 (14.4) 1.2
SA 374.3 (26.9) 363.8 (16.8) 2.9b 367.7 (24.7) 359.5 (15.5) 1.9 374.2 (20.4) 357.3 (12.0) 3.7c
BA 399.9 (24.4) 427.2 (25.6) –6.7d 399.0 (23.0) 440.6 (36.1) –6.7d 400.5 (29.1) 418.7 (29.0) –2.3a
BIGB 123.3 (9.0) 118.5 (14.0) 2.5a 127.8 (9.4) 119.7 (16.2) 3.0b 129.2 (11.4) 123.0 (11.3) 2.0a
NH 49.6 (4.6) 51.1 (3.7) –2.2a 49.5 (4.3) 51.4 (3.9) –2.2a 50.7 (4.1) 51.5 (4.1) –0.7
NB 33.0 (3.3) 33.4 (2.8) –0.9 31.2 (3.0) 34.9 (2.4) –6.9d 32.9 (4.1) 36.4 (3.1) –3.5c
MB 43.9 (5.4) 47.7 (4.1) –4.8d 44.7 (5.1) 51.5 (5.9) –6.0d 45.4 (5.0) 52.2 (4.3) –5.4d
ID 58.8 (6.9) 65.1 (6.5) –5.8d 61.7 (4.9) 64.3 (7.3) –2.1a 59.9 (5.3) 59.8 (7.0) 0.0

A dependent t test was used for the comparison.

a. p ≤0.05.

b. p ≤0.01.

c. p ≤0.001.

d. p ≤0.000.

(F = 7.9, p < 0.001), LEV (F = 6.3, p < 0.01), OS (F = 4.0, p < 0.05), ORT (F = 6.5, p < 0.01), OLT (F = 6.0, p < 0.01), BA (F = 5.3, p < 0.01), NB (F = 12.8, p < 0.000), MB (F = 14.1, p < 0.000), and ID (F = 6.1, p < 0.01). These data (height, HL, OS, HB, BIGB, and NB) showed significant differences according to age in both Korean and Japanese female subjects. BMI increased in order of age for females from both countries, and ORT and OLT values decreased in order of age from 20–39 years old to 60+ years old to finally 40–59 years old. NB and ID showed no regular tendency according to age. For Korean female subjects, HB, HC, and BIGB showed significant differences according to age, but there was no [End Page 320] significant relationship in Japanese female subjects. HC was inversely correlated to age, whereas BIGB was directly correlated to age. For Japanese female subjects, RTV, REV, LEV, and BA showed the same tendency in that values decreased in order of age from 40–59 years old to 20–39 years old to finally 60+years old. LTV was inversely correlated to age, whereas MB was directly proportional to age.

Table 5 depicts a comparison of Korean and Japanese head and face dimensions by sex. Among the Korean subject group, 16 items showed significant differences between male and female subjects. Korean male subjects had higher values than those for female subjects in all areas except for LEV. HC [603.0 (SD 26.9) [End Page 321] vs. 589.8 (27.5)], height [168.9 cm (8.4) vs. 157.0 cm (6.5)], and SA [382.8 (27.7) vs. 372.2 (25.2)] showed larger differences (more than 10 mm) between Korean male subjects and Korean female subjects.

Table 5

Height, Weight, and Head and Face Dimensions (in mm) of Koreans and Japanese by Sex

Parameter Koreans Japanese
Male Mean (SD) Female Mean (SD) t Test Value Male Mean (SD) Female Mean (SD) t Test Value
Height (cm) 168.9 (8.4) 157.0 (6.5) 13.2d 169.7 (6.1) 157.7 (5.6) 17.0d
Weight (kg) 66.6 (10.6) 57.5 (7.9) 8.2d 64.4 (10.4) 53.6 (7.5) 10.0d
BMI 23.4 (3.3) 23.4 (3.3) –0.1 22.4 (3.2) 21.6 (3.2) 2.0
TH 229.4 (11.8 226.6 (10.2) 2.1a 243.6 (9.1) 235.1 (7.6) 8.5d
RTV 132.0 (8.0) 131.7 (6.9) 0.4 142.5 (7.6) 140.8 (6.1) 2.1a
LTV 132.3 (8.4) 132.2 (7.1) 0.1 143.1 (7.3) 141.5 (6.0) 2.0a
REV 120.0 (8.2) 119.7 (7.1) 0.2 130.0 (7.4) 127.8 (6.3) 2.6b
LEV 120.4 (8.0) 120.4 (7.5) –0.1 130.2 (7.3) 128.4 (6.0) 2.2a
SVH 192.1 (9.9) 190.0 (9.2) 1.8 205.4 (8.9) 199.9 (7.5) 5.6d
MFH 113.5 (8.1) 110.1 (6.9) 3.7d 119.5 (6.4) 112.1 (6.1) 9.7d
HL 194.4 (8.7) 189.2 (7.1) 5.4d 199.0 (6.7) 190.7 (6.8) 10.1d
ORE 173.1 (9.2) 169.4 (8.7) 3.5c 176.5 (7.0) 169.0 (8.0) 8.1d
OLE 171.8 (9.0) 167.7 (9.1) 3.7d 174.7 (6.7) 168.1 (8.1) 7.3d
OS 183.9 (12.2) 176.3 (11.5) 5.3d 186.7 (10.3) 173.5 (10.9) 10.3d
ORT 90.2 (9.5) 89.2 (8.2) 0.9 80.7 (7.0) 78.9 (8.9) 1.8
OLT 90.1 (9.5) 89.1 (8.2) 0.9 80.7 (7.0) 78.8 (8.9) 1.9
HB 166.1 (8.0) 161.7 (7.6) 4.7d 170.5 (7.2) 165.9 (6.4) 5.6d
BB 155.1 (6.5) 151.2 (8.0) 4.5d 160.1 (10.4) 147.3 (9.6) 10.6d
HC 603.0 (26.9) 589.8 (27.5) 4.0d 605.7 (21.8) 575.4 (15.0) 13.6d
SA 382.8 (27.7) 372.2 (25.2) 3.3c 379.9 (17.2) 361.3 (15.8) 9.4d
BA 400.5 (30.1) 399.7 (24.7) 0.2 445.0 (34.3) 429.9 (30.8) 3.9d
BIGB 129.1 (9.2) 125.8 (9.8) 2.8b 127.2 (14.5) 119.7 (14.3) 4.3d
NH 52.6 (4.8) 49.8 (4.4) 5.0d 54.6 (4.5) 51.3 (3.8) 6.6d
NB 33.9 (4.3) 32.4 (3.5) 3.2c 38.5 (3.1) 34.4 (2.9) 11.0d
MB 45.0 (5.8) 44.5 (5.2) 0.8 53.9 (4.4) 49.7 (5.2) 7.2d
ID 62.3 (5.5) 59.9 (6.2) 3.3c 68.9 (8.0) 63.9 (7.1) 5.5d

a. p ≤0.05.

b. p ≤0.01.

c. p ≤0.001.

d. p ≤0.000.

Among Japanese subjects, almost all values showed significant differences between male and female subjects, except for ORT and OLT. Male subjects had higher values than did female subjects. Some values showed differences as large as 10 mm, including height [169.7 cm (6.1) vs. 157.7 cm (5.6)], weight [64.4 kg (10.4) vs. 53.6 kg (5.5)], BB, HC, SA, and BA. The largest category value difference, 30.4 mm, occurred between male and female Japanese subjects in the HC category. [End Page 322]

Table 6

Comparisons of Male Head and Face Types (in mm)

Parameter Korean Males Japanese Males
Type I Type II F Value Type I Type II Type III F Value
TH 237.5 225.0 42.8d 237.2 244.4 254.2 30.2d
RTV 138.8 128.3 79.3d 136.4 143.3 152.4 44.7d
LTV 139.7 128.3 90.1d 137.6 143.6 152.8 42.6d
REV 126.6 116.3 70.5d 124.3 130.9 138.1 32.5d
LEV 126.8 116.8 67.3d 124.9 130.9 138.2 29.3d
SVH 198.4 188.7 35.8d 198.7 206.3 216.0 34.8d
MFH 115.2 112.6 3.0 119.6 118.8 122.3 2.2
HL 199.1 191.8 22.9d 193.6 200.7 203.1 23.2d
ORE 176.1 171.5 7.3b 173.3 177.4 179.5 6.2b
OLE 174.7 170.2 7.4b 171.2 175.8 177.7 8.5d
OS 188.0 181.6 8.4b 182.2 189.0 186.9 5.7b
ORT 94.7 87.7 17.8d 79.8 81.0 81.7 0.6
OLT 94.6 87.7 17.1d 79.6 81.0 81.7 0.6
HB 170.1 164.0 18.8d 165.6 172.6 172.1 14.5d
BB 156.7 154.3 4.1a 156.0 162.9 157.2 6.5b
HC 606.7 600.9 1.3 592.9 610.2 614.0 10.3d
SA 400.2 373.2 34.2d 362.4 385.7 393.0 49.1d
BA 430.5 384.0 150.4d 414.4 446.9 502.3 98.7d
BIGB 130.6 128.3 1.8 131.4 124.7 128.9 2.8
NH 52.2 52.8 0.4 53.8 54.7 55.7 1.0
NB 34.2 33.8 0.2 38.8 38.4 38.0 0.3
MB 46.3 44.3 3.3 53.0 54.3 54.4 1.1
ID 61.7 62.6 0.7 63.3 72.2 67.4 20.0d

a. p ≤0.05.

b. p ≤0.01.

c. p ≤0.001.

d. p ≤0.000.

We performed a cluster analysis (Euclidean distance) of the head and face features of Korean male subjects, and the resulting data allowed classification of the measurements into two types. ANOVA was used to verify differences in head and face type (Table 6). There were significant differences in the head and face dimensions by type, except in the areas of MFH, HC, BIGB, NH, NB, MB, and ID. Type I (35.5%) indicates a group with high values and in which BA shows a vast average difference (46.52 mm) in arc from left tragion to right tragion, compared to type II. In contrast to the type I subjects, type II individuals (64.5%) had overall low item values and a low overall average difference value.

For Japanese male subjects, head and face dimensions stratified into three types. Almost all values showed significant differences among types except for MFH, ORT, OLT, BIGB, NH, NB, and MB. Type I (29.0%) subjects had low item values. Type II subjects (57.3%) had midrange item values that were generally higher than type I but lower than type III. Type III subjects (13.7%) had [End Page 323] the largest values, except for the OS, HB, BB, and ID category measurements, and they generally had longer face shapes than members of the other two type classifications.

Table 7

Comparisons of Female Head and Face Types (in mm)

Parameter Korean Females Japanese Females
Type I Type II Type III F Value Type I Type II Type III F Value
TH 232.5 228.7 218.6 43.8d 237.8 236.3 231.9 9.0d
RTV 136.5 132.0 126.0 59.2d 144.4 141.6 137.3 21.6d
LTV 137.3 132.1 126.6 56.6d 145.0 142.1 138.3 18.8d
REV 124.5 120.4 113.9 55.2d 131.1 128.0 124.9 13.7d
LEV 125.3 121.2 114.4 52.8d 131.3 128.7 125.9 11.1d
SVH 195.9 190.1 183.2 42.6d 203.5 200.8 196.2 14.1d
MFH 111.8 111.0 107.7 5.8b 110.4 113.5 112.3 3.2a
HL 189.2 194.7 185.6 22.7d 187.9 196.9 187.3 56.7d
ORE 167.8 175.4 167.3 12.8d 164.0 176.1 166.6 51.2d
OLE 166.1 174.8 164.9 17.7d 163.3 175.3 165.4 53.6d
OS 173.4 182.1 175.9 6.9c 164.7 181.7 173.2 45.8d
ORT 89.3 93.2 86.6 7.7c 70.7 84.9 79.9 49.6d
OLT 89.2 93.2 86.5 7.8c 70.6 84.7 79.8 49.3d
HB 161.2 166.3 159.3 10.4d 169.0 166.1 163.3 11.2d
BB 152.8 154.3 147.3 11.8d 149.2 148.4 143.8 7.5c
HC 578.2 626.0 579.6 82.4d 572.9 587.8 566.0 45.9d
SA 378.2 391.6 352.7 44.9d 353.5 373.9 355.6 37.2d
BA 415.2 401.2 381.1 43.0d 465.0 424.4 407.1 107.2d
BIGB 126.4 127.7 123.8 1.9 117.1 118.9 122.5 1.9
NH 51.2 49.5 48.4 6.5b 50.5 52.1 51.2 1.9
NB 32.6 33.2 31.7 2.1 33.1 34.8 35.3 8.3d
MB 44.4 45.5 43.8 1.0 48.8 50.7 49.5 1.7
ID 60.9 59.6 58.9 1.6 66.6 63.9 62.0 5.3b

a. p ≤0.05.

b. p ≤0.01.

c. p ≤0.001.

d. p ≤0.000.

We also performed a cluster analysis (Euclidean distance) of the head and face features of Korean female subjects, and head and face dimensions were classified into three types. To verify differences in head and face type, we applied the ANOVA method (Table 7). There were significant differences in the head and face dimension by type classification except for BIGB, NB, and MB.

Individuals classified as type I (41.1%) displayed high values in the TH, RTV, LTV, REV, LEV, SVH, MFH, BA, NH, and ID categories of measurements and generally displayed elongated head and face shapes. Individuals classified as type II (23.2%) displayed high values in the HL, ORE, OLE, OS, ORT, HB, BB, HC, and SA categories of measurements and generally had a broad head and face in lateral view. Individuals classified as type III (35.8%) displayed OS and HC [End Page 324] values between those of type I and type II individuals, and they tended to have low values in all other categories of measurements.

For Japanese female subjects, head and face dimensions were stratified into three types. Almost all values showed significant differences among types except for BIGB, NH, and MB. Individuals classified as type I (29.5%) displayed high values in the TH, RTV, LTV, REV, LEV, SVH, HB, BB, BA, and ID categories of measurements, and they generally displayed elongated and broad head and face shapes. However, MFH, ORE, OLE, OS, ORT, OLT, SA, and NB values were low, and type I subjects had narrow heads and faces in lateral view and the vertical length from subnasion to promenton was short, even though subjects had elongated head and face shapes. Type II individuals (33.6%) displayed high values in the MFH, HL, ORE, OLE, OS, ORT, OLT, HC, SA, and NB categories of measurements, and they had wide faces and heads in lateral view and a longer face height from subnasion to promenton. Type III (36.9%) individuals displayed MFH, ORE, OLE, OS, ORT, OLT, SA, and NB values between those of type I and type II individuals, and they tended to have low values in all other categories of measurements; type III individuals generally displayed smaller head and face shapes.

Discussion

This study provides information regarding head and face dimensions of Korean and Japanese subjects. We are able to show that average Korean head and face shapes differ significantly from Japanese head and face shapes. Koreans have higher BMI than Japanese, and Korean males and females have the same BMI, but the BMI has higher coefficients for males than for females in Japanese. BMI shows a tendency to increase with increasing age for both countries.

Multivariate comparisons of the head and face dimensions of Korean and Japanese adults show statistically significant differences except for height, ORE, OS, and BB (Table 8). Japanese have larger values for craniometrics than Koreans do, except for weight, BMI, ORT, OLT, HC, SA, and BIGB. Japanese have a longer head and a larger head length. Nose breadth and mouth breadth of Japanese are larger than those for Koreans, and Japanese have a wider distance between the pupils of the eyes.

In the comparison of Korean and Japanese males on head and face dimensions, almost all values show statistically significant differences between Korean and Japanese subjects, except height, HC, SA, and BIGB. Only ORT, OLT and BMI for Korean male subjects were larger than those for Japanese male subjects; the other Japanese items (weight, TH, RTV, LTV, REV, LEV, SVH, MFH, HL, ORE, OLE, OS, HB, BB, BA, NH, NB, MB, and ID) were higher than those for Koreans. The MB values, in particular, showed the largest difference between Korean and Japanese male subjects.

In the comparison of Korean and Japanese female head and face dimensions, almost all item values show statistically significant differences between the Korean [End Page 325] and Japanese groups, except in the categories of height, HC, ORE, and OLE. HC did not show statistically significant differences between the two female subject groups. Weight, BMI, OS, ORT, OLT, BB, HC, SA, and BIGB for Korean females were larger than those values for Japanese females.

Table 8

Multivariate Comparisons of Craniometrics Between Korean and Japanese Adults

Parameter Group Mean (SD) F Value
Height Koreans 162.4 (9.5) 1.2
Japanese 163.2 (8.3)
Weight Koreans 61.6 (10.3) 12.0c
Japanese 58.6 (10.4)
BMI Koreans 23.4 (3.3) 25.7d
Japanese 21.9 (3.2)
TH Koreans 227.9 (11.0) 160.3d
Japanese 238.9 (9.4)
RTV Koreans 131.8 (7.4) 253.5d
Japanese 141.6 (6.9)
LTV Koreans 132.3 (7.7) 259.9d
Japanese 142.2 (6.7)
REV Koreans 119.8 (7.6) 205.5d
Japanese 128.7 (6.9)
LEV Koreans 120.4 (7.7) 201.6d
Japanese 129.2 (6.7)
SVH Koreans 190.9 (9.6) 215.4d
Japanese 202.4 (8.6)
MFH Koreans 111.6 (7.6) 36.3d
Japanese 115.5 (7.3)
HL Koreans 191.5 (8.3) 18.1d
Japanese 194.5 (7.9)
ORE Koreans 171.1 (9.1) 3.2
Japanese 172.4 (8.5)
OLE Koreans 169.5 (9.2) 4.5a
Japanese 171.1 (8.1)
OS Koreans 179.7 (12.4) 0.0
Japanese 179.6 (12.5)
ORT Koreans 89.6 (8.8) 187.1d
Japanese 79.7 (8.2)
OLT Koreans 89.6 (8.8) 188.4d
Japanese 79.6 (8.2)
HB Koreans 163.7 (8.1) 43.0d
Japanese 168.0 (7.1)
BB Koreans 153.0 (7.6) 0.0
Japanese 152.9 (11.3)
HC Koreans 595.7 (28.0) 8.8b
Japanese 589.2 (23.8)
SA Koreans 377.0 (26.8) 13.1d
Japanese 369.8 (18.8)
BA Koreans 400.1 (27.2) 199.6d
Japanese 436.8 (33.4)
BIGB Koreans 127.3 (9.7) 15.1d
Japanese 123.1 (14.9)
NH Koreans 51.0 (4.8) 20.1d
Japanese 52.8 (4.5)
NB Koreans 33.1 (3.9) 101.4d
Japanese 36.3 (3.6)
MB Koreans 44.7 (5.5) 229.4d
Japanese 51.7 (5.3)
ID Koreans 61.0 (6.0) 80.2d
Japanese 66.3 (7.8)

a. p ≤0.05.

b. p ≤0.01.

c. p ≤0.001.

d. p ≤0.000.

Korean and Japanese male subject groups had more statistically significant differences than female subjects did. Japanese female and male subjects generally had higher values for head and face items than Korean female male subjects did. Korean female subjects had more high-valued items (BIGB, SA, HC, BB, OLT, ORT, OS, and weight) than Korean male subjects (ORT, OLT) compared to Japanese groups. According to 1997 data (Ministry of Science and Technology 1998), Japanese male subjects had higher values in all scoring categories than Korean male subjects, but this tendency was not noted among female subjects. [End Page 326]

In the sex-based comparison of head and face dimensions among Koreans, 16 items (height, weight, TH, MFH, HL, ORE, OLE, OS, HB, BB, HC, SA, BIGB, NH, HB, and ID) show significant differences between male and female subjects. For Japanese subjects, almost all values show significant differences between males and females, except for ORT and OLT; head and face dimensions show distinct differences between Japanese male and female subjects compared to Koreans. In the 1997 data (Ministry of Science and Technology 1998), there was a similar tendency in Japanese groups. The data provided by the current study show that average differences in values between Korean male and female subjects decreased compared with the 1997 data, which supports Yoon and Jung’s (2002) warning that caution should be taken when using Japanese data for Koreans.

HC and BIGB values in American males (Zhuang and Bradtmiller 2005) were lower than those in Korean and Japanese males, and American females had smaller HC and BIGB values than did Asians.

The proportion of elderly people in the population has been steadily increasing over the last decades. This trend in population change appears to be emerging in Korea and Japan. However, research on the head and face dimension of elderly individuals has rarely been conducted in Korea, and there is little research on a comparison between Koreans and Japanese.

We used MANOVA between age (continuous covariate) and age groups (main effect) to find the differences between Korean and Japanese craniometrics. Height, BMI, HL, ORE, OLE, ORT, OLT, HB, BIGB ( p < 0.001), and HC ( p < 0.05) displayed significant differences across age groups in Koreans, and all parameters showed significant differences across age groups in Japanese ( p < 0.05). There are distinct differences according to age groups in the Japanese age groups compared to the Korean age groups.

In a comparison of Korean and Japanese male head and face dimensions according to age, only five items (weight, BMI, BIGB, ORT, OLT) of Korean male subjects were larger than those for the Japanese group. For the 40–59-year-old group, only two items (ORT, OLT) of Korean male subjects were larger than those for the Japanese males. BA, MB, and LTV showed the largest differences between Korean and Japanese male subjects. Almost all items for the 60+ male age group showed that only three items (ORT, OLT, SA) of Korean male subjects were larger than those for Japanese male subjects. NB showed the largest difference between Korean and Japanese male subjects.

ORE and NH in Korean male subjects had statistically significant differences according to age, but there were no significant differences among Japanese male subjects. For Japanese male subjects, TH, REV, LEV, ORT, OLT, HC, SA, and ID showed statistically significant differences according to age, and these values showed a tendency to decrease with increasing age. Japanese male subjects displayed distinct differences and lower values for head and face dimensions as age increased compared to Korean male subjects. The height, HL, OS, HB, BIGB, and NB data showed statistically significant differences between Korean and Japanese male subjects. With height values, both groups showed the same tendency; that [End Page 327] is, height decreased with age, whereas weight increased. ORT and OLT decreased in order of age from 20–39-year-olds to those age 60 and older to, finally, 40–59- year-olds; NB and ID showed no regular tendency according to age.

In a comparison of Korean and Japanese female head and face dimensions by age, the Korean group of 20–39-year-old females had higher values for only seven items (weight, BMI,ORT, OLT, BIGB, HC, and SA). LTV and RTV showed a large difference between the Korean and Japanese female subjects. The group of 40– 59-year-old Korean female subjects had higher values in eight categories (weight, BMI, OS, ORT, OLT, BB, HC, and BIGB) than Japanese female subjects. RTV and LTV showed a large difference between Korean and Japanese female subjects. Almost all item values for females age 60 and older showed statistically significant differences between the Korean and Japanese groups, and only six items (BMI, ORT, OLT, BB, SA, and BIGB) for Korean female subjects were larger than those for Japanese female subjects.

Japanese female subjects had more distinct differences in head and face dimensions than Korean female subjects, but three items (height, ID, and LTV) showed a tendency to decrease. Three items (weight, NB, and MB) showed a tendency to increase; four items (RTV, REV, LEV, and BA) tended to decrease in order of age, from 40–59 years old to 20–39 years old to, finally, 60 years old and older; and three items (ORT, OLT, and OS) tended to decrease in order of age, from 20–39 years old to 60+ years old to, finally, 40–59 years old. In general, the female group had no regular tendency according to age compared to males.

MFH, BIGB, NH, NB, and MB did not influence type classification of head and face shape for both Korean and Japanese male subjects. For Korean male subjects, the head and face dimensions were classified into two types. Korean male subjects’ type classification was less problematic than the classification of three types of Japanese male and female groups.

Values were generally high or low with Korean female type classifications, but Japanese female type classifications displayed more high/low value diversity. BIGB, NH, and MB did not influence the type classification between Korean and Japanese males and females. Head and face types of female subjects were mixed, with more distinctive values than those for male subjects.

This study is limited in purpose for use in production and facility design applications. The head and face dimensions collected in this study can be used for product and facility design applications such as hats, helmets, glasses design, and so forth. Hat design as an application of the data is given here. A critical measurement for headwear is HC. In addition, BA, SA, and HL are also important for making headwear. Table 9 describes the dimensions’ applied and recommended values; these data are considered to control size band and therefore are set on the basis of the 95th percentile.

Helmets are common in sports, construction work safety, aviation, and the military. For the recommended range of dimensions, measurements of HL, HB, HC, BC, and RTV were selected (Table 10). [End Page 328]

Table 9

Recommended Values (mm) for Headwear for Koreans and Japanese

Koreans Japanese
Males Females Males Females
HC, 95th percentile 656.8 641.2 650.9 601.6
BA, 95th percentile 541.9 439.1 495.3 483.1
SA, 95th percentile 428.5 415.9 405.9 390.9
HL, 95th percentile 207.0 200.5 209.8 200.0
Table 10

Recommended Ranges (mm) of Dimensions for Helmets for Koreans and Japanese

Koreans Japanese
Males Females Males Females
HL, 5th–95th percentile 181.2–207.0 177.0–200.5 186.4–209.8 178.2–200.0
HB, 5th–95th percentile 153.0–179.2 148.9–174.1 157.2–181.3 155.1–176.8
HC, 5th–95th percentile 561.0–656.8 548.3–641.2 575.0–650.9 551.7–601.6
BA, 5th–95th percentile 355.1–451.9 367.8–439.1 387.0–495.3 385.7–483.1
RTV, 5th–95th percentile 119.0–144.2 118.4–142.2 129.0–155.7 131.2–150.4
Hyun-Ja Lee
BED R&D Institute, ACE BED Company, 310-1, Sang Gok-Ri, Sam Sung-Myun, Eum Sung-Gun, Chung Cheong Buk-Do, Korea
Se-Jin Park
Medical Metrology Center, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, 1 Doryong-Dong, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305–340, Republic of Korea
Received 14 September 2006
final revision received 28 February 2008

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Additional Information

ISSN
1534-6617
Print ISSN
0018-7143
Pages
313-330
Launched on MUSE
2008-11-14
Open Access
No
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