Teaching for Diversity and Social Justice (2nd Ed.)
For approximately the last ten years, since the release of the first edition of Teaching for Diversity and Social Justice Education, social justice training has continued to grow in both popularity and importance. Not only has there been an abundance of literature written since 1997, there have also been institutes (e.g. Social Justice Training Institute) and organizations [End Page 261] (e.g., ACPA's Commission for Social Justice Educators) created to serve as places to train facilitators and as spaces for like minds to continue to address issues of social justice. In 2007, Maurianne Adams, Lee Anne Bell, and Pat Griffin returned as editors for Teaching for Diversity and Social Justice (2nd Ed.), and along with several other contributors, built upon the foundation laid in the previous edition. This work is an example of collaboration in its purest form on multiple levels. This is evident in the editor's preference that anyone citing this work, by chapter or as a whole, not use et al., but instead, mention each person affiliated with the portion used. The work is divided into three parts: theory and practice, curriculum designs, and the contributors' closing thoughts regarding knowledge of self and participants.
In part 1, "Theoretical Foundations and Principles of Practice," Lee Anne Bell uses chapter 1 as a lens through which to view oppression and social justice for the remainder of the book while outlining necessary theoretical foundations frequently utilized throughout the work. In chapter 2, Maurianne Adams discusses the methodology of administering social justice education in the classroom setting and the various interactions present in the process. Examples of past and present pedagogical frameworks are also provided. Chapter 3, by Rita Hardiman, Bailey Jackson, and Pat Griffin, explains the book's social oppression model and its connections to oppression's many faces and changing nature. Also mentioned are the advantages and disadvantages of encountering one form of oppression at a time, as the book does. This chapter functions as the corner stone for most of the following chapters and is seen as a must read before proceeding. In chapter 4, Lee Anne Bell and Pat Griffin speak to course design as it has to do with identifying its goals, usefulness to the participants, the physical environment, and challenges to preexisting beliefs. Pat Griffin and Mathew Ouellet then use chapter 5 to address the many factors of course facilitation including roles and responsibilities of one or more facilitators.
Part 2, "Curriculum Designs for Diversity and Social Justice," deals with the integral components of curricular structures across many forms of oppression. Lee Anne Bell opens with an overview of racism in which a definition is provided in addition to commenting on its evolving and elusive nature. In chapter 6, Lee Anne Bell, Barbara J. Love, and Rosemarie A. Roberts speak to race and White privilege, the constructs and effects of both, the structure of training modules, and everyone t:'s association with and personal responsibility in addressing these issues. In the next chapter, Lee Anne Bell, Khyati Y. Joshi, and Ximena Zúñiga apply the thoughts of the previous chapter to immigration, the immigrant experience, and globalization.
Pat Griffin's overview of sexism, heterosexism, and transgender oppression shows the relationships and interconnectivity of the three, while providing a brief history and important terms to know. It is also noted that the section on transgender oppression is an addition since the last edition of this work. In chapter 8, Steven Botkin, Joanne Jones, and Tonya Kachwaha acknowledge the work previously done to counteract sexism yet still suggest that more can be done to aid women, and those considered to be "womanlike" (p. 173). This curriculum design, while being clear and detailed, examines gender and gender differences while providing exercises that aid in the understanding of violence and power. Pat Griffin, Katja Hahn D'errico, Bobbie Harro, and Tom Schiff use chapter 9 to continue the theme of oppression while focusing on heterosexism and its effect on persons identifying as lesbian, gay, or bisexual. A good portion of this chapter addresses [End Page 262] facilitation issues and the institutionalization of heterosexism. In chapter 10, using one of the first designs of this sort to be published, Chase Catalano, Linda McCarthy, and Davey Shlasko, offer a framework for understanding transgender oppression. The design is structured to have participants examine gender for themselves, offers an overview of language experiences of transgender persons, and ultimately desires to move participants to liberation and action against this form of oppression.
In an overview of religious oppression, Maurianne Adams sets up the following chapters in a way that the reader can understand the examination of religious oppression is to be viewed as sociological, not theological, while mentioning connections to other oppressions. In chapter 11, Maurianne Adams and Khyati Joshi set up the training modules by highlighting religious oppression history, governmental "guarantees of religious freedom" (p. 261), Christian privilege, and religious diversity's connection to oppression. The modules to follow concentrate on the personal awareness connected to the previously mentioned topics. The Anti-Semitism and Anti Jewish oppression design, by Maurianne Adams and Katja Hahn D'errico, is featured in chapter 12, and shares the difference of the two, seeks to develop awareness, discusses the connection to the Middle East conflicts, and gives action steps. Betsy Leondar-Wright and Felice Yeskel's chapter 13 addresses the classism curriculum design and classism's interconnectivity to the myth of meritocracy, democracy, capitalism, and noneconomic portions. Chapter 14, by Pat Griffin, Madeline L. Peters, and Robin Smith, discusses ableism and disability oppression while offering a design that allows participants to hear the voices of persons with disabilities, understand how the physical environment increases or lessens the effect of a disability, and the international views on disabilities. In the final chapter of curriculum designs, chapter 15, Barbara J. Love and Kathleen J. Phillips offer a design to foster understanding of ageism and adultism, the interconnectivity of the two and how they both affect, and are affected by, other oppressions. The design modules address the institutional and cultural aspects of both and aids participants in altering their ways of thinking.
In part 3, "Conversations Among Facilitators," Lee Anne Bell, Barbara J. Love, Sharon Washington, and Gerald Weinstein, use chapter 16 as a space to address facilitators' knowledge of self surrounding assumptions, values, biases, etc.; the facilitator's social identities and unchecked prejudices; and offer methods to deal with classroom comments, self-disclosure, and facilitators' needs for student approval. Lastly, in chapter 17, Maurianne Adams, Joanne Jones, and Beverly Daniel Tatum accent the importance of knowing student participants as it pertains to curriculum goals, meeting students where they are, balancing the multiple identities present, and use of theories and other sources to aid in student understanding.
Teaching for Diversity and Social Justice (2nd Ed.) is an overall magnificent work. Not only does it address oppressions one by one, it also shows how they can become intertwined to have a greater effect. Additionally, this work shows that oppressions effect more than the oppressed and have a way of hurting everyone. Yet, as with all projects, this book possessed shortcomings. Firstly, many of the book's sections divide people into groups of White and people of color. This is dangerous as it leads to a homogenization of experiences and circumstances that could differ vastly, while seemingly making whiteness the norm. Secondly, although the evolving nature of oppressions was mentioned, the oppressed seem to be shown as constants. With that, the book failed to mention ways in which the oppressed can become the oppressor and methods to [End Page 263] address such instances. Thirdly, much is said about changing one's thinking; however, less is said about the participants' ability to maintain, and feel fine with, beliefs that are a part of their core system of values even if they are not widely accepted. Fourthly, as freedom of speech can impact oppression, more could have been said about how it, and other rights and/or laws, can serve as a safe haven for oppression to remain unchallenged. And finally, past approaches to conquer oppressions were mentioned, but the book failed to mention instances of how they were coopted, have lost their effectiveness as a result, and that even though methods provided in this edition are seemingly cutting-edge, we all have all the responsibility to find ways to contribute to the continuance of future theories, methods, and frameworks. Nonetheless, in spite of these shortcomings, Teaching for Diversity and Social Justice (2nd Ed.) is a must-have for anyone and everyone with an interest in facilitating social justice education. [End Page 264]