In the current era of neoliberalism, there is not only an expansion of Western influence in many parts of Africa, but also increased influence from the Arab world. Transnational Islamic nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) are a vehicle of this influence. In a context of structural adjustment, an increased spread of Western consumption ideals through mass communication, and a growing sense of the global context in which one is living, these organizations aim to influence people's material and moral well-being. By combining material aid with proselytization, they embed their work in ideas about transnational solidarity and the importance of enlarging the umma, the global community of the faithful. By disseminating a Salafi form of Islam, they link local believers to other parts of the Muslim world. They thus nourish processes of Islamization and Arabization. This paper explores the interventions of these organizations in Chad, focusing on the logic of their work and the effects of their involvement in Chad, characterized by poverty and a strong politicization of religion.