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BOOK REVIEWS 239 phenomenological report. Finally, in Viktor Kraft we are returned to a psycho-genetic approach combining the earlier psychological data with a wider range of data fron~ child psychology, social psychology, and clinical laboratories. A person unfamiliar with the field may well after a first reading of this book come to the opinion that the subject is in a state of hopeless confusion. But actually what is presented here is a field in process of excavation with evidences of important complex structures coming into view. For actually these various theories do not so much conflict with one another as amplify one another. For instance, the violent controversy between Meinong and von Ehrenfels as to whether feeling or desire should be taken as the basis of value was needless and mistaken. Both are required as articulations of a purposive act, the one to initiate a purpose and the other to give it emotional fulfilment. And purposes go on in an environment of natural objects and of other persons making references across space and time, enduring in the manner of dispositions, centered in selves, in a biological and cultural setting. All these factors enter into an adequate treatment of values. One after another the various German theorists bring in some new factors, or new groups of factors, and try out different groupings for these factors. None of these views is adequate. But they all agree in seeking adequacy and a comprehensive coverage of the field. That is why they can be included in general theory of value. Moreover, if one looks closely, he can see evidences of a coagulation and integration of these views. Certain motives keep coming to the surface from very diverse sources. One of these is the person or the self, another is an interpenetration of emotive and cognitive factors, and another is to give some sort of answer to Kant towards a suitable harmony between duty and inclination, and there are still others. We shall look forward to the second volume on the Anglo-American treatments of general theory of value. In writing this new volume I hope Werkmeister will not out of modesty de-emphasize his own comprehensive theory in Man and his Values. For in that book he goes far towards gathering up into an integrated whole the scattered factors brought to light in his analyses of the German writers. STEPHEN C. PEPPER University of Cali[ornia, Berkeley The Letters of Josiah Royce. Edited and with an Introduction by John Clendenning. (Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1970) This volume is exceptionally well presented and edited. Diversity of interest to be found in it can only be suggested in a review. The volume contains 483 letters of Josiah Royce written between 1875 and 1916, selected by John Clendenning and presented at a time of marked revival of interest in the work of Royce. The letters are useful both to students of Royce, the philosopher, and to those who may seek, through Royce's eyes, information of a wide variety including indirect information on those to whom letters are addressed or who are mentioned in them, detail on the histories of Harvard and the University of California, Royce's history of California, and his novel. Clendenning includes three appendixes. The first gives information on those to whom letters are addressed. The second appendix gives textual notes with a list of substantive emendations, with the note that "the text has been emended only when Royce's language appears ambiguous and when the problem can be corrected simply and indisputably. Emendation of sentence mechanics--spelling, punctuation, and type 240 HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY face--are made silently in keeping with modern American usage." Emendations of sentence structure have been considered substantive and are listed in detail. The third appendix provides a list of letters which are not included in this volume, listed alphabetically by depository and chronologically within collections. With the exception of "epistolary matter--telegrams, memoranda, inscriptions, calling cards and marginalia" and letters written for publication, this volume presents a complete reference to all extant letters, either reproduced here or listed in the third appendix. The student of Royce, the philosopher, should not miss the letter...


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