- China's Path from Communism
Andrew J. Nathan is professor of political science and director of the East Asian Institute at Columbia University. His most recent trip to China was in October 1992. A version of this article was presented as the Florence Liu Macaulay Distinguished Lecture in Asian and Pacific Studies at the University of Hawaii at Manoa, 19 January 1993.
1. Samuel P. Huntington, "Democracy's Third Wave," Journal of Democracy 2 (Spring 1991): 12-36.
2. Tianjian Shi, "Political Participation in Beijing: A Survey Study" (Ph.D. diss., Columbia University, 1992); Andrew J. Nathan and Tianjian Shi, "Cultural Requisites for Democracy in China: Some Findings from a Survey," Daedalus 122 (Spring 1993); and as yet unreported findings from a 1990 survey by Tianjian Shi.
3. Richard Lowenthal, "Development vs. Utopia in Communist Policy," in Chalmers Johnson, ed., Change in Communist Systems (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1970), 33-116.
4. Min Qi, Zhongguo zhengzhi wenhua [Chinese Political Culture] (Kunming: Yunnan renmin chubanshe, 1989), 179-80 and elsewhere. This survey is based on a badly flawed sample and should not be used for statistical induction, but where the percentages are high it offers a useful supplement to impressions derived from other sources. Chinese respondents have a range of views about what they think democracy is.
5. See Andrew Scobell, "Why the People's Army Fired on the People," in Roger V. Des Forges et al., eds., Chinese Democracy and the Crisis of 1989: Chinese and American Reflections (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1993), 191-221.
6. Mainland sample survey (1990) by Tianjian Shi, unpublished results.
7. For a comparison of transition processes in China and the Soviet Union, see Minxin Pei, "Societal Takeover in China and the USSR," Journal of Democracy 3 (January 1992): 108-18. [End Page 42]