- The Morass in MoscowThe Democrats in Disarray
Michael McFaul is a research associate at the Center for International Security and Arms Control at Stanford University, where he co-directs a program on military conversion and privatization in the former Soviet Union. He is" also a research fellow (by courtesy) at the Hoover Institution and a consultant to the National Democratic Institute (NDI). He is the author of Post-Communist Politics: Democratic Prospects in Russia and Eastern Europe (1993) and The Troubled Birth of Russian Democracy (with Sergei Markov, 1993).
1. See Giorgii Satarov, "Rossiiskie s'ezdy: Deiustifikatsiya politicheksoi sistemy," Rossiiskii monitor: Arkhiv sovremmenoi politiki 1 (1992): 28-56.
2. For a brief review of this period, see Michael McFaul, "Russia's Emerging Political Parties," Journal of Democracy 3 (January 1992): 25-40.
3. Guillermo O'Donnell and Philippe Schmitter, Transitions from Authoritarian Rule: Tentative Conclusions (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1986), 69.
4. On this problem of "flat" societies, see Juan Linz and Alfred Stepan, "Political Identities and Electoral Sequences: Spain, the Soviet Union, and Yugoslavia," Daedalus 121 (Spring 1992): 123; and Claus Offe, "Capitalism by Democratic Design? Democratic Theory Facing the Triple Transition in East Central Europe," Social Research 58 (Winter 1991): 876.
5. Gavriil Popov, "Awaiting the Birth of a New System," Washington Times, 13 November 1991.
6. Douglass North, Institutions, Institutional Changes, and Economic Performance (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990), 3.
7. Laurence Whitehead, "The Consolidation of Fragile Democracies: A Discussion with Illustrations," in Robert Pastor, ed., Democracy in the Americas: Stopping the Pendulum (New York: Holmes and Meier, 1989), 79.
8. Grazhdanskii Soyuz, "Programma antikrizisnogo uregulirovaniya" (unpublished manuscript, 1992).
9. Yurii Gekt, the leader of the Industrial Union faction within the Congress, spearheaded the creation of the All-Russian Congress of Manufacturers in August 1992 as a more conservative alternative to Volsky. At the same time, Democratic Russia leader Pyotr Phillipov collaborated with Anatoly Chubais, deputy prime minister and chairman of the State Committee for Property, to convene the Congress of Privatizing and Privatized Enterprises in November 1992. For opposite reasons, both of these new associations despise Civic Union. [End Page 29]