President George Bush presented one of his major post-9/11 foreign-aid initiatives—the Millennium Challenge Account—as a tool for counteracting global poverty and international terrorism. The policy is based on the view that poverty and terrorism are linked, and therefore alleviating poverty will help combat terrorism. The design and the implementation of the program, however, suggest that the U.S. government may have other intentions for the MCA, including overhauling the foreign-aid regime. This paper discusses the MCA's effectiveness in addressing poverty and terrorism by highlighting the relationships between them. It discusses the other roles of the MCA and explores the implications of the policy for alleviating poverty in Africa.