Vishwamitter Adil published English translations of Urdu poetry and fiction and was a screenwriter, director, lyricist, and film actor. He died in 2002.
Abul Bashar was born in 1951 in Hamarpur, West Bengal, India. His works include Bhorer prosuti, Saidabai, Simar, and Mati chere jai. His earliest work explores the lives of Muslim women of West Bengal. In 1988 he received the Ananda Purashkar.
Samaresh Basu was born in 1924 and spent his early childhood in Dhaka (in present-day Bangladesh). From 1943 through 1949 he worked in a factory in Ichhapore and was an active member of the trade union and the Communist Party; he was jailed from 1949 to 1950, when the party was declared illegal, and while in jail, he wrote his first novel, Uttaranga. In all, he wrote more than 200 short stories and 100 novels, including those published under the aliases Kalkut and Bhramar. His book Shamba, a modern interpretation of the Puranic tales, won the Sahitya Akademi Award in 1980. He died in 1988.
Rajinder Singh Bedi was born in Lahore in 1915 and moved to India after Partition. The author of several collections of short stories and film scripts, he is regarded as one of the most prominent Urdu fiction writers. Two of his collections of short stories, Dana-o-Daam (The Catch) and Grehan (The Eclipse), were published before Partition. His novel Ek Chadar Maili Si received the Sahitya Akademi Award in 1965 and was made into a popular film. He died in 1984.
Alok Bhalla has a doctorate from Kent State University and is a professor of English literature at the Central Institute of English and Foreign Languages, Hyderabad. He has published extensively on translation theory, literature, and politics and has recently edited a collection of stories, Partition Dialogues: Memories of a Lost Home (Oxford University Press, 2006).
Urvashi Butalia was born in Ambala, India, in 1952 and completed graduate studies in London in 1977. In 1984 she cofounded Kali for Women, India's first feminist publishing house. Her writing has appeared in numerous periodicals in India and England. Her most recent edited books are Speaking Peace: Women's Voices from Kashmir and The Other Side of Silence: Voices from the Partition of India.
Radha Chakravarty is a Reader at the Department of English, Gargi College, University of Delhi. She has translated numerous Bengali authors into English, and [End Page 213] her essays, articles, and reviews have appeared in journals and critical anthologies worldwide. Her books of translations include The Bankimchandra Omnibus by Bankim Chandra Chatterji; In the Name of the Mother: Four Stories by Mahasveta Debi; Crossings: Stories from Bangladesh and India; and most recently Boyhood Days by Rabindranath Tagore. In 2005 she was nominated for the Crossword Translation Award.
Krishna Dutta was born and raised in Calcutta before moving to London. She is a scholar and translator, particularly of the works of Rabindranath Tagore. In addition to coauthoring his biography Rabindranath Tagore: The Myriad-Minded Man, she also edited and translated, with Andrew Robinson, The Selected Letters of Rabindranath Tagore, Rabindranath Tagore: An Anthology, and Tagore's The Post Office, Noon in Calcutta: Short Stories from Bengal, and Glimpses of Bengal.
Gulzar (Sampooran Singh) was born in Deena in 1934. He moved to Delhi after Partition and began his career writing lyrics for film and television. In 1971 he became a screenwriter and director, scripting more than sixty films and directing seventeen. His honors include the National Award (received three times) and the Filmfare Award (received fourteen times). In 2002, Filmfare awarded him its Lifetime Achievement Award for his contributions to Hindi cinema. He received the Sahitya Akademi Award in 2003 for his collection of Urdu short stories, Dhuaan.
Rashid Haider was born in Pabna in 1941 and now lives in Dhaka. Best known as a novelist and short-story writer, he has written extensively about the Liberation War and the lives of rural and middle-class people. A playwright, translator, political historian, and biographer as well, he received the Bengla Academy Award in 1984 and both the Humayun Qadir Prize and the Nedhushah Literary Prize in 1987.
John W. Hood is an Australian scholar of Indian culture who earned his doctorate in Bengali historiography from the University of Melbourne. He has translated numerous works from Bengali, most recently Freedom's Ransom by Prafulla Roy. He is also a noted scholar of Indian cinema, having written five books and numerous articles, essays, and interviews. His most recent book on Indian cinema is The Films of Buddhadeb Dasgupta, an enlarged and revised edition of his book Time and Dreams.
Intizar Husain was born in Dibai, India, in 1925 and migrated to Pakistan in 1947. A writer, critic, and translator, he has published seven volumes of short stories, four novels, and a novella, as well as travelogues, memoirs, and a volume of critical essays. In 1982 he was offered, but declined, the Adamjee Literary Award for his second novel, Basti (Town). His numerous honors include the Yatra Award, Pride of Performance (Government of Pakistan), Kamal-i-Fun Award (Government of Pakistan), Adabi Award (Anjuman-i-Farogh-i-Urdu, India), and the ARY Gold Award.
Kamleshwar (Kamleshwar Prasad Saxena) was born in 1932 in India and became one of the most prominent Hindi authors of the twentieth century. Along with having published several books of fiction and literary criticism, he was director of [End Page 214] Doordarshan, India's national television channel, and wrote numerous film scripts. He was also the editor of the Hindi daily newspapers Dainik Jagran and Dainik Bhaskar and was awarded the Padmabushan in 2005. He died in Mainpuri in January 2007.
Sukrita Paul Kumar is a former fellow of the Indian Institute of Advanced Study, Shimla, and has published four collections of poems in English: Without Margins, Oscillations, Apurna, and Folds of Silence. Her critical books include Conversations on Modernism, The New Story, Breakthrough (a collection she edited), Man, Woman and Androgyny, and Narrating Partition. In 1991, she became a recipient of the Bharat Nirman Award for Talented Women for her contributions to literature and art, and she received a 1993–1994 Shastri Indo-Canadian Faculty Research Fellowship. Her U.S. residencies include the Iowa International Writing Program. She teaches literature at a Delhi University college.
Saadat Hasan Manto was born in 1912 in Samrala, Punjab, and is regarded as the leading Urdu-language fiction writer of the twentieth century. Of Kashmiri ancestry, he published twenty-two collections of stories, three collections of essays, scores of plays, a novel, and scripts for more than a dozen films. He worked for All India Radio in Bombay before moving to Pakistan after Partition. Often at odds with literary censors in both India and Pakistan, he died at the age of forty-two.
Khadija Mastur was born in 1927 in Lucknow, India. She and her younger sister, Hajira Masroor, worked actively for the Muslim League in 1946, and during Partition, she and her family migrated to Lahore, Pakistan. She wrote several collections of short stories and two novels, Aangan (The Courtyard) and Zamin (Earth). She died in Lahore in 1983. For her collection of short stories Thanda Meetha Pani (Cool, Sweet Water), she was posthumously honored with the Baba-e-Urdu, Dr. Abdul Haq Award.
Tahira Naqvi was raised and educated in Lahore, Pakistan, and now lives in the United States. Her short-story collections are Attar of Roses and Other Stories of Pakistan and Dying in a Strange Country. She has also translated books by such prominent Urdu writers as Ismat Chughtai, Khadija Mastur, Saadat Hasan Manto, and Hajira Masroor.
Joginder Paul was born in 1925 in Sialkot and migrated to India during Partition. His mother tongue is Punjabi, but his primary and middle-school education was in Urdu. He received his master's degree in English literature and eventually became head of a post-graduate college in Maharashtra. His nineteen fictional works are widely read in both India and Pakistan, and he has won every important award that an Urdu writer can receive.
Frances W. Pritchett is a professor of Urdu and Hindi at Columbia University. Among her translated works are Aab-e-hayat: Shaping the Canon of Urdu Poetry, the last anthology of classical Urdu poetry, and An Evening of Caged Beasts: Seven Postmodernist Urdu Poets. Her works of literary criticism include Nets of Awareness: Urdu Poetry and Its Critics. [End Page 215]
Mohan Rakesh was born in Amritsar in 1925 and was educated in Lahore. He was one of the pioneers of the Nai Kahani (New Story) movement in Hindi in the 1950s. His works included novels, short stories, travelogues, criticism, memoirs, and drama. Among his plays are Ashadha Ka Ek Din (One Day in the Rainy Month of Ashadha), one of the first plays to revive the Hindi stage in the 1960s; Adhe Adhure (The Incomplete Ones); and Lehron Ke Rajhamsa (The Swans of the Waves). He was recognized with the Nehru Fellowship and the Sangeet Natak Akademi Award. He died in 1972.
Ravikant is a historian, writer, and translator working with the Sarai Programme of the Centre for the Study of Developing Societies, Delhi. He has coedited (with Tarun K. Saint) Translating Partition (Katha, 2001) and (with Sanjay Sharma) Deewan-e-Sarai (vol. 1): Media Vimarsh/Hindi Janpad (Vani, 2002) and Deewan-e-Sarai (vol. 2): Shaharnama (Vani, 2005).
Andrew Robinson was born in 1957 and studied at Oxford and the School of Oriental and African Studies in London. He is a prolific author, editor, and translator and until recently was the literary editor of the Times Higher Education Supplement. His books include Satyajit Ray, The Inner Eye: The Biography of a Master Film-Maker, and Satyajit Ray: A Vision of Cinema. With Krishna Dutta, Robinson coauthored the acclaimed biography Rabindranath Tagore: The Myriad-Minded Man; also with Dutta, he co-edited and co-translated The Selected Letters of Rabindranath Tagore and Rabindranath Tagore: An Anthology.
Prafulla Roy was born in 1934 in a village in the Dhaka district. Still a boy at the time of Partition, he took up writing in 1953. The short-story collections of his that have been translated into English include In the Shadow of the Sun and Set at Odds: Stories of the Partition and Beyond. Considered one of Bengal's finest writers, he has been honored with the 2003 Sahitya Akademi Award for his novel Kranti Kal. Roy's work has influenced such filmmakers as Buddhadeb Dasgupta, Tapan Sinha, Biplab Ray Chaudhary, and Sandeep Ray. Numerous films have been based on Roy's stories and made in several languages.
Bhisham Sahni was born in 1915 in Rawalpindi. He is a prolific translator and author of fiction and plays. His novel Tamas (Darkness), translated into English in 1988, received international notice for its portrayal of the communal riots during Partition. In addition to writing in Hindi, Sahni writes in English, Urdu, Sanskrit, Russian, and Punjabi. He has translated twenty-five books from Russian into Hindi, including Tolstoy's Resurrection, and has received two Sahitya Akademi Awards, the Madhya Pradesh Kala Sahitya Parishad Award, the Shiromani Writers Award, the Lotus Award from the Afro-Asian Writers' Association, and the Soviet Land Nehru Award. [End Page 216]
Tarun K. Saint teaches English literature at Hindu College, Delhi University. His area of research interest is the literature of Partition. He has edited Bruised Memories: Communal Violence and the Writer (Seagull, 2002) and coedited (with Ravikant) Translating Partition (Katha, 2001).
Sunil Trivedi is a translator and senior business executive who was educated in Calcutta and Allahabad. He is a scholar of Hindi, Urdu, Sanskrit, and English. His works include the translation, with Sukrita Paul Kumar, of Joginder Paul's novel Sleepwalkers.
Richard Williams has translated such works as Mannu Bhandari's Hindi novel Mahabhoja (The Great Feast).