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Archaeology provides a long-term framework to document prehistoric resource use and habitat modification. Excavation at Nu'alolo Kai, Kaua'i, yielded a large, well-preserved shellfish assemblage. Analysis determined the susceptibility of mollusk communities to human foraging pressures in the past. Some coral reef and intertidal species, such as Turbo sandwicensis and Strombus maculatus, declined in abundance as a result of heavy exploitation. In contrast, shoreline mollusk communities remained fairly stable through time. Archaeological research provides baselines for modern conservation efforts and fisheries management.