Chile’s new Socialist president Michelle Bachelet will seek to maintain the country’s socioeconomic progress, but her attempt to cure growing alienation from the traditional parties could create a new set of problems. Chile’s success has owed much to the ability of disciplined parties with roots in society to agree for the sake of governance. The country still faces many challenges, including reducing inequality, renewing the educational system, and strengthening economic competitiveness. Chile’s leaders can best address them by working with the population to overhaul democratic institutions to make them more open, participatory, and responsive.