Cultural metaphors identify neonatal intensive care with extraterrestism, but describe liminal preterm patients as subhuman or nonhuman. These metaphors, Whittier argues, contextualize a failure to provide adequate pain relief for preterm infants. Other factors, be they pharmacological, educational, structural, or representational, also contribute to verbal denial of infant pain, as well as to the dialogic compromise and ethical stress imposed on medical personnel despite recent technological advances and calls for reform from neonatologists themselves. A response to "The Ethics of Metaphor and the Infant Body in Pain," by pediatrician John Lantos, and Whittier's response to Lantos, follows this article.

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pp. 210-235
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