Technology transfer to China on a large scale from the Western world began during the middle of the 19th century and went through several different stages. One of the important stages was from the 1950s to the early 1960s, when the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was involved in a comprehensive program of technology transfer to China. This program included three parts: one was to transfer industrial technology by aiding the construction of industrial projects; another was to develop Chinese capacity in science and technology through various forms of cooperation; and the third was educational and involved helping China adjust and construct technology colleges, as well as recruiting a large number of Chinese students to study in the USSR. As part of these assistance and cooperative projects, the USSR sent thousands of experts or consultants to China. This paper tracks the process of transfer through all three elements, examining their main content, characteristics, and influence on this enormous program of technology transfer.