During the early Turkish republic karagöz shadow theatre's Ottoman patterns were transformed. Reformers attempted to restrict coffeehouses where the art had flourished and developed written texts to replace the improvised practice of the past. They sponsored performances in government-supported community centers and created shows to promote government policies. The efforts meant that an art, which had grown from lower-class satire of the elite was purged of obscene elements, characters were changed to conform to modern ideology, and government control was asserted on what had been a domain of free speech. It is possible that the efforts to restructure the once vibrant art helped hasten its decline.