The human phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK1) gene is located within Xq11–Xq13 and is closely linked to the androgen receptor gene within a region implicated in a number of X-chromosome-linked urologic disorders. A polymorphism of a TATC short tandem repeat (STR) is present downstream from the PGK1 3' nuclease-sensitive site. We present the PGK1 flanking STR sequence and population genetic data for 190 Japanese males and 83 Japanese females. Ten STR alleles and 29 genotypes were identified in the population. Five alleles—*10, *11, *12, *13, and *14—were common in the Japanese with frequencies greater than 10%. No significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were established. The power of discrimination was 0.993 for females and 0.819 for males; heterozygosity was 0.759 for females; and the polymorphic information content was 0.936. These data indicate that this STR locus shows a high degree of polymorphism in this Japanese population and may prove to be a useful genetic marker in forensic medicine, in determining the clonality of neoplasms, and potentially in studying predisposition to prostate cancer and other urologic diseases.