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Kevin J. Wetmore - Modern Japanese Drama in English - Asian Theatre Journal 23:1 Asian Theatre Journal 23.1 (2006) 179-205

Modern Japanese Drama in English

A Brief History of Modern Japanese Theatre

After the Meiji Restoration and the opening of Japan to the West, the Japanese theatre underwent a series of transformations. The cultural, economic, and political changes in the nation fundamentally altered the traditional theatres of nō, kyōgen, kabuki, and bunraku and challenged Japanese conceptions of the theatre.

As J. Thomas Rimer argues, two conflicting ideas of how to modernize the theatre evolved in the face of the modernization of the rest of Japanese culture: the modernization of traditional theatre versus the development of a new theatre based on Western models (1974: 11–12). Beginning in 1870, attempts were made to reform the kabuki, making it more contemporary in both subject matter and construction. Eventually these efforts resulted in a new form: shin-kabuki ("new kabuki"), with plays written by literary figures such as Tsubouchi Shōyō and Okamoto Kidō. This form, however, was not a success and the kabuki itself began to crystallize into the contemporary manner of performance.

The next wave of modern theatre moved to break further with the traditional theatre. Shimpa ("New School") was ultimately a transitional form (though it still exists today), which used Western plays as models to develop a melodramatic and romanticized theatre performed by a combination of kabuki performers and amateur actors. Kawakami Otojirō, one of the first and arguably one of the most successful [End Page 179] shimpa artists, along with his wife Sadayakko, adapted Shakespeare, performed often highly patriotic, imperialistic docudramas, and wrote original plays. Their company toured the United States and Europe from 1899 to 1901, providing the first performances of modern Japanese theatre in the West. Shimpa introduced many modern theatre elements, including actresses, new ticketing systems, and shorter, evening performances. Ultimately, however, the shimpa movement also failed to develop into a widely accepted modern theatre.

It was not until the development of shingeki ("new theatre") that a truly modern theatre managed to completely rupture from traditional forms, and base its theatre solely on Western models of acting and playwriting. The Cambridge Guide to Asian Theatre divides the history of modern theatre into five periods: "1887–1928, the establishment of a modern theatre; 1928–45, the political and orthodox modernism; 1960–73, the rejection of modernism; and 1973 to the present, diversification" (Brandon 1993, 153). During this period, two key troupes (among others) were formed that demonstrated the two approaches to the development of modern drama. The Bungei Kyōkai (Literary Arts Society) was founded in 1906 by Tsubouchi Shōyō, one of the key translators of Shakespeare and the advocate of using literature as a means to develop a new drama. The Jiyō Gekijō (The Free Theatre, named after Antione's Théâtre Libre) was founded in 1909 by Osanai Kaoru and kabuki actor Ichikawa Sadanji, who were committed to developing a new theatre through the creation of a modern acting style.

In 1923, Osanai and Hijikata Yoshi founded the Tsukiji Shōgekijō (Tsukiji Little Theatre), a state-of-the-art theatre in Tokyo. Although the company was eventually torn apart by politics, it was one of the most influential theatres in the evolution of modern Japanese drama.

David Goodman sees more than simply the development of a new type of theatre and drama in shingeki of this first period. In the introduction to Japanese Drama and Culture in the 1960s: The Return of the Gods he argues that the creators of shingeki "sought . . . a complete break with tradition" (Goodman 1988b: 5). For Goodman, shingeki's emphasis on theatrical realism and naturalism and its left-leaning politics represents a rupture not only with the theatrical past, but with the entire cultural heritage of Japan.

In the prewar period, as a militarized nation moved rightward politically, leftist theatre artists grew more vocal, eventually being viewed as dangerous and finally coming under government censorship and oppression. During the war, only officially sanctioned patriotic plays or works by nonpolitical "literary" and "artistic" playwrights and performers were permitted. With the American Occupation (1945–1952), [End Page 180] the generally apolitical realism that had dominated during the war years became orthodoxy as the occupation censors suppressed both rightist plays that espoused "feudal" values and leftist dramas in the face of the growing "cold war" against communism and the Soviet Union.

In the 1960s, however, another shift occurred in which a new form developed out of the social conflict caused by the U.S.-Japan Mutual Security Treaty crisis of 1960, termed angura (a Japanification of the word "underground") by some and "post-shingeki" by others and shōgekijō undō (Little Theatre Movement) by still others. This new theatre sought to re-establish contact with a lost "Japaneseness" and with premodern culture. It was shaped by a blend of the traditional and modern theatres and the often (though not exclusively) leftist political concerns of its young creators. One of the most famous figures to emerge during the postwar period, however, was not leftist, in fact, but a conservative nationalist—Mishima Yukio, whose modern plays reflect many of the same concerns as the angura playwrights, including a need to reconnect with "the bedrock of Japanese culture," in Goodman's words (1988b: 19). Mishima and the angura playwrights also shared a need to find meaning in the wake of World War II, the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and the failure of Marxists and modern dramatists to adequately address these issues. Though Mishima disagreed both politically and aesthetically with many of his contemporaries in the Japanese theatre world, all were seeking a means of expressing modern Japanese identity. His spectacular suicide in 1970 and his body of nondramatic literature have ensured that Mishima received the lion's share of attention paid to modern Japanese drama in English until recently.

The last thirty years have seen a growth of modern pluralism. Intercultural theatre blending traditional and modern techniques, postmodern productions, Broadway-style musical extravaganzas, realism, and traditional forms exist side by side in the Japanese theatre world. Some directors, such as Suzuki Tadashi and Ninagawa Yukio, have come to international attention, while others, such as Noda Hideki, remain highly popular in Japan but much less well known outside the country. Although a number of scripts have been recently translated, contemporary Japanese playwriting remains relatively unknown in Europe and America. Whereas the stages of Tokyo (professional, amateur, and academic) often present both classical Western texts and the latest plays from Europe and America in translation, production of modern Japanese drama in Western theatres is virtually unheard of.

Much work remains to be done in the study of modern Japanese [End Page 181] drama and theatre in English. Other than the path-breaking actresses Matsui Sumako (1886–1919) and Kawakami Sadayakko (1871– 1946), no modern Japanese performers have seen significant attention in English. Likewise, other than Suzuki and Ninagawa, few Japanese directors have received scholarly attention in English. As this taxonomy indicates, hundreds of plays have been translated, yet thousands upon thousands remain untranslated.

For a more in-depth introduction to modern Japanese drama, see David Goodman (1988b), J. Thomas Rimer (1974), Brian Powell (2002b), and James Brandon (1993) in particular.

A Brief History of Translation into English

Western scholarly attention to modern Japanese theatre has been eclipsed by the attention paid to the traditional theatres. Three periods of translation and academic interest in the modern theatre of Japan, however, can be distinguished.

In the early twentieth century, from 1920 to 1940, just as shingeki has become established, some Westerners, interested in drama as a literary form more than theatre as a performance form, began translating plays as they were written. Not all of these plays had been performed, but many, if not all, had appeared in print in literary magazines and in books. Glenn W. Shaw, Glenn Hughes, and Eric Bell, among others, translated and published a number of these literary plays, such as those of Kikuchi Kan, Nakamura Kichizō, and Tanazaki Jun-ichirō. Others brought the shin-kabuki plays of Okamoto Kidō into English during the same period.

The second emergence of modern Japanese dramatic translation occurred in the postwar and occupation period. Donald Keene, among others, again focused on plays as works of literature to be translated. The plays of Mishima Yukio in particular dominate this period, thought a handful of other plays were translated between 1950 and 1965 as well.

The third period, which we are still in today, began in the late 1960s and shifted the focus from drama as literature to scripts as blueprints for performance and indicative of a theatre as the focus. Pioneer David G. Goodman started Concerned Theatre Japan, a magazine dedicated to modern Japanese theatre, in 1969, having begun working with several of the more significant companies as a photographer. Several issues also featured translations of modern plays in addition to the articles, interviews, and reviews concerning the shōgekijō. Following Goodman's lead, Westerners in Japan began to write about and translate modern Japanese drama into English: J. Thomas Rimer, John Gillespie, [End Page 182] and Robert Rolf, and more recently scholars such as Carol Fisher Sorgenfrei and M. Cody Poulton have been translating and analyzing modern theatre and drama in Japan since the late 1960s and early 1970s. The first scholars came to Japanese theatre out of departments of literature, but subsequent scholars and translators have come out of theatre and performance backgrounds. Others in England and Europe, such as Brian Powell, A. Horrie-Webber, and Masako Yuasa, among others, have also worked to bring Japanese theatre to English-speaking readers and audiences. The development of Asian Theatre Journal along with the Japan Playwrights Association's issuing Half a Century of Japanese Theatre, a delightful nine-volume series from the 1950s through the end of the twentieth century, have has greatly increased the number of plays available in English. A new generation of scholars of modern Japanese theatre is now emerging from graduate programs all over the world, promising to further increase the material available in English.

How to Use this Taxonomy

The first section of the taxonomy is a list of plays listed by playwright in alphabetical order. The dates of individual playwrights are also given, as are the Japanese titles and date of first performance. Publication information is given for the text of the English edition. In the case of multiple translations of the same play, they are indicated numerically under the title and given in chronological order of publication.

The second section lists plays included in anthologies. The anthology is listed by the editor or playwright and the plays included are listed in brackets. The third section lists plays available in a single volume. Both of these sections are designed to help the instructor to locate suitable classroom material and to aid the researcher in locating texts.

Given the growing number of intercultural productions that blend both traditional Japanese theatre and modern theatres from around the world and cross-cultural productions, the first appendix lists representative fusion works. It does not claim to be a comprehensive survey, but rather offers an idea of some of the fusion texts available for consideration. The second appendix lists general and major works of critical and historical scholarship in English of modern Japanese drama.

The information on this list is as complete as the complier could verify. There remain some gaps, indicated in the text by asterisks (**). This taxonomy is intended for both classroom and research use, as an aid to finding texts to use in the classroom and to help researchers of [End Page 183] Asian theatre locate texts and plays. Multiple translations of single texts can also be interesting in comparing how different translators have handled the same material.

The use of macrons is inconsistent, as I have tried to follow the usage as it appears in the original publications. As macron use is inconsistent in the books and plays themselves, it has followed so here. Likewise, earlier transliterations of Japanese names have also been noted, for example, Kikuchi Kan's name has also been rendered as "Kikuchi Kwan."

Lengthy though this list may seem, it also indicates how much there is left to translate. New plays are being written all the time. Significant "modern" classics have still not been translated—Kinoshita Junji's Otto to iu Nihonjin (A Japanese Called Otto, 1962), Tanizaki Jun'ichirō's Aisureba koso (Because I Love Him, 1921), Iwata Toyō's Higashi wa Higashi (East is East, 1933), Miyoshi Jōro's portrait of Vincent van Gogh Honō no hito (Man of Flame, 1955), and other plays by Kishida Kunio, Tanaka Chikao, Yashiro Seiichi, and Betsuyaku Minoru come to mind. More recent popular playwrights, such as Noda Hideki and Shimizu Kunio, are starting to see their works translated into English, and women playwrights, much smaller in number than their male counterparts, but still significant and growing in importance, popularity, and number, such as Kishida Rio, are also finally being translated. Also becoming more prevalent are translations of scripts by collectives and companies, such as dumb type and Blue Bird Theatre Company, but much more work needs to be done in all these areas.

I would like to extend my thanks, in no particular order, to M.Cody Poulton, Carol Fisher Sorgenfrei, J. Thomas Rimer, Laurence R. Kominz, David G. Goodman, Brian Powell, and Mariko Boyd. They pointed out omissions, added missing dates, names, titles, and publication data, corrected spellings and generally offered encouragement and support. I am in their debt and this index would not have been completed without their help. Thanks are also due to the Tsubouchi Shoyo Theatre Museum and its library at Waseda University, which filled in many gaps. Any errors are, alas, my own.

Samuel L. Leiter was the impetus behind this project. As editor of ATJ, he first suggested it and then gave suggestions and advice during the compiling and editing period. It is to him that this work is dedicated.

Please send corrections and additional entries to the compiler at kwetmore@lmu.edu. I would like to continue to develop this list asmore material becomes available and to fix any errors that may be on it. [End Page 184]

Plays Listed by Playwright

Abe Kōbō (1924–1993)

Friends. (Tomodachi, 1967). Translated by Donald Keene. Tokyo: Charles E. Tuttle, 1969.

The Ghost Is Here. (Yōrei wa koko ni iru, 1958). Translated by Donald Keene. In Three Plays by Kōbō Abe. New York: Columbia University Press, 1993.

The Green Stockings. (Midori-iro no sutokkingu, 1974). Translated by Donald Keene. In Three Plays by Kōbō Abe. New York: Columbia University Press, 1993.

Involuntary Homicide. (Mihitsu no koi, 1971). Translated by Donald Keene. In Three Plays by Kōbō Abe. New York: Columbia University Press, 1993.

The Man Who Turned into a Stick. (Bō ni natta otoko, 1969). Translated by Donald Keene. Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press, 1975. [Three related plays: Suitcase, The Cliff of Time and The Man Who Turned into a Stick.]

Uniform. (Seifuku 19**). Translated by Noah S. Brannen. Japan Christian Quarterly. Vol. 45, no. 4, 1979: 194–214.

You, Too, Are Guilty. (Omae nimo tsumi ga aru, 1978). Translated by Ted T. Takaya. In Modern Japanese Drama: An Anthology. Edited by Ted T. Takaya. New York: Columbia University Press, 1979.

Akimoto Matsuyo (1911–)

Kaison the Priest of Hitachi. (Hitachibō Kaison, 1965). Translated by David G. Goodman. In Japanese Drama and Culture in the 1960s: The Return of the Gods. Edited by David G. Goodman. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1988.

Arishima Takeo (1878–1923)

Death. (Shi to sono zengo, 1916). Translated by Yozan T. Iwasaki and Glenn Hughes. In New Plays from Japan. London: Ernest Benn Limited, 1930.

Betsuyaku Minoru (1937–)

The Cherry in Bloom. (Ki ni hana saku, 1980). Translated by Robert T. Rolf. In Alternative Japanese Drama. Edited by Robert T. Rolf and John K. Gillespie. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 1992.

A Corpse with Feet. (Ashi no aru shitai, 1982). Translated by Yuasa Masako. Asian Theatre Journal. Vol. 14, no. 1 (Spring 1997).

The Elephant. (Zō, 1962). Translated by David G. Goodman.

[1] In Concerned Theatre Japan. Vol. 1, no. 3 (Autumn 1970): 69–143.

[2] In After Apocalypse: Four Japanese Plays of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. New York: Columbia University Press, 1986. Rev. ed. Ithaca, NY: Cornell East Asia Program, 1994.

The Legend of Noon. (Shōgo no densetsu, 1973). Translated by Robert T. Rolf. In Alternative Japanese Drama. Edited by Robert T. Rolf and John K. Gillespie. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 1992.

The Little Match Girl. (Matchi-uri no shōjo, 1966). Translated by Robert N. Lawson. In Alternative Japanese Drama. Edited by Robert T. Rolf and John K. Gillespie. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 1992.

The Move. (Idō, 1971). Translated by Ted T. Takaya. In Modern Japanese Drama: [End Page 185] An Anthology. Edited by Ted T. Takaya. New York: Columbia University Press, 1979.

Sick. (Byōki, 1977). Translated by M. Cody Poulton. In Half a Century of Japanese Theatre Volume 6: 1960s, Part 1. Edited by the Japan Playwrights Association. Tokyo: Kinokuniya, 2004.

The Story of the Two Knights Traveling Around the Country. (Shokoku o henrekisuru futari no kishi no monogatari, 1987). Translated by Yuasa Masako. Leeds: Alumnus, 1990.

The Town and the Balloon. (Machi to hikōsen, 19**). Translated by Noah S. Brannen. Japan Christian Quarterly. Vol. 45, no. 4 (1979): 214–2**.

Chigiri Kōsai (1902–1982)

Kobo Daishi. (Kōbō Daishi, 19**). Translated by Hirano Umeyo. In Buddhist Plays from Japanese Literature. Tokyo: CIIB, 1962.

Myoe Shonin. (Myoe Shonin, 19**). Translated by Hirano Umeyo. In Buddhist Plays from Japanese Literature. Tokyo: CIIB, 1962.

Seikuro of Yamato. (Yamato no Seikurō, 19**). Translated by Hirano Umeyo. In Buddhist Plays from Japanese Literature. Tokyo: CIIB, 1962.

Tokuno Oda. (Tokuno Oda, 19**). Translated by Hirano Umeyo. In Buddhist Plays from Japanese Literature. Tokyo: CIIB, 1962.

Chong Wishing (1957–)

A Legend of Mermaids. (Ningyo densetsu, 1990). Translated by Cody Poulton. In Half a Century of Japanese Theatre IV, 1980s Part 2. Edited by Japan Playwrights Association. Tokyo: Kinokuniya, 2002.

dumb type (Performance collective, 1984–)

S/N. (S/N, 1995). Translated by dumb type. In Half a Century of Japanese Theater Volume II: 1990s Part 2. Edited by Japan Playwrights Association. Tokyo: Kinokuniya, 2000.

Endō Shōsaku (1923–1996)

The Golden Country. (Ögon no kuni, 1970). Translated by Francis Mathy. Tokyo: Tuttle, 1970. Rev. ed. London: Peter Owen, 1989.

Fujikawa Takeo (1915–)

Scarred Hands: It's Not Too Late, in Case of Nuclear War. (Kizudarake no te, 1977). Translated by Don Kenny. Tokyo Sansyusha, 1992.

Fujita Den (1932–)

The Amida Black Chant Murder Mystery. (Kuronembutsu satsujin jiken, 1971). Translated by John D. Swain. In Half a Century of Japanese Theater V: 1970s. Edited by Japan Playwrights Association. Tokyo: Kinokuniya, 2003.

Fukuda Yoshiyuki (1931–)

Find Hakamadare! (Hakamadare wa doko da, 1967). Translated by David G. Goodman. In Japanese Drama and Culture in the 1960s: The Return of the Gods. Edited by David G. Goodman. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1988.

Hamada Zenya (1925–)

Goya. Translated by Hamada Zenya. In Genius: Six Plays. London: Blackheath, 1991. [End Page 186]

Jesus Christ. Translated by Hamada Zenya. In Genius: Six Plays. London: Blackheath,1991.

Mozart. Translated by Hamada Zenya. In Genius: Six Plays. London: Blackheath, 1991.

Picasso. Translated by Hamada Zenya. In Genius: Six Plays. London: Blackheath, 1991.

Shakespeare. Translated by Hamada Zenya. In Genius: Six Plays. London: Blackheath, 1991.

Van Gogh. Translated by Hamada Zenya. In Genius: Six Plays. London: Blackheath, 1991.

Harue Tsutsumi (1950–)

Kanadehon Hamlet. (Kanadehon Hamuretto, 1992). Translated by Faubion Bowers with David W. Griffith and Hori Mariko. Asian Theatre Journal. Vol. 15, no. 2 (Fall 1998).

Hirata Oriza (1962–)

Citizens of Seoul. (Sōru Shimin, 1989). Translated by John D. Swain. In Half a Century of Japanese Theater Volume I: 1990s Part 1. Edited by Japan Playwrights Association. Tokyo: Kinokuniya, 1999.

Tokyo Notes. (Tokyo nōto, 1994). Translated by M. Cody Poulton. Asian Theatre Journal vol. 19, no. 1 (Spring 2002).

Hotta Kiyomi (1922–)

The Island. (Shima, 1955). Translated by David G. Goodman. In After Apocalypse: Four Japanese Plays of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. New York: Columbia University Press, 1986. Rev. ed. Ithaca, NY: Cornell East Asia Program, 1994.

Ichidō Rei (nom de plume of Blue Bird Theatre Company, 1975–)

Miss Toyoko's Departure. (Aoi mi wo tabeta: Tsumetai mizu oishii mizu, 1986). Translated by David G. Goodman. In Half a Century of Japanese Theater Volume III: 1980s Part 1. Edited by Japan Playwrights Association. Tokyo: Kinokuniya, 2001.

Iijima Sanae (1963–) and Suzuki Yumi (1963–)

Rhythm Method. (Hōōchō no hininō, 1992). Translated by Sue Herbert. In Half a Century of Japanese Theater Volume II: 1990s Part 2. Edited by Japan Playwrights Association. Tokyo: Kinokuniya, 2000.

Inoue Hisashi (1934–)

Make-up. (Keishō, 1983). Translated by Akemi Hori. Encounter Vol. 22, no. 5 (May 1989): 8–18.

Yabuhara: The Blind Master Minstrel (Yabuhara kengyō, 1973). Translated by Marguerite Wells. In Half a Century of Japanese Theatre Volume VI: 1960s Part 1. Edited by Japan Playwrights Association.Tokyo: Kinokuniya, 2004.

Iwamatsu Ryō (1952–)

Futon and Daruma. (Futon to Daruma, 1988). Translated by Yuasa Masako. Leeds: Alumnus, 1992.

The Man Next Door. (Tonari no otoko, 1990). Translated by Yuasa Masako. In Half a Century of Japanese Theater Volume II: 1990s Part 2. Edited by Japan Playwrights Association. Tokyo: Kinokuniya, 2000. [End Page 187]

Iwasaki Yozan T. (18**–19**)

Nari-kin. (Nari-kin, 1919). Translated by Iwasaki Yozan and Glenn Hughes. In Three Modern Japanese Plays. Edited by Yozan T. Iwasaki and Glenn Hughes. Great Neck: Core Collection Books, 1976.

Izumi Kyoka (1873–1939)

The Castle Tower. (Tenshu monogatari, 1917). Translated by M. Cody Poulton. In Spirits of Another Sort: The Plays of Izumi Kyōka. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2001.

Demon Pond. (Yashagaike, 1913). Translated by M. Cody Poulton. In Spirits of Another Sort: The Plays of Izumi Kyōka. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2001.

The Sea God's Villa. (Kaijin bessō, 1913). Translated by M. Cody Poulton. In Spirits of Another Sort: The Plays of Izumi Kyōka. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2001.

Kaneko Yōbun (1894–1985)

Weighing Anchor. (Shuppan, 19**). Translated by Yamada Kazuo. In The Roof Garden and Other One-Act Plays. Edited by Yamada Kazuo. Tokyo: Shijo Shobō, 1934.

Kaneshita Tatsuo (1964–)

Ice Blossoms. (Kanka, 1997). Translated by Mitachi Riho. In Half a Century of Japanese Theater Volume I: 1990s Part 1. Edited by Japan Playwrights Association. Tokyo: Kinokuniya, 1999.

Kara Jōrō (1940–)

A Cry from the City of Virgins. (Shojo toshi kara no yobigoe, 1985).

[1] Translated by M. Cody Poulton. Canadian Theatre Review. No. 85 (Winter 1995): 45–65.

[2] Translated by Leon Ingulsrud (as A Cry from the Virgin City). In Half a Century of Japanese Theatre VI: 1960s Part 1. Edited by Japan Playwrights Association. Tokyo: Kinokuniya, 2004.

John Silver: The Beggar of Love. (John Silver: Ai no kojiki, 1970). Translated by David G. Goodman.

[1] In Concerned Theatre Japan. Vol. 1, no. 2 (Summer 1970): 144–213.

[2] In Japanese Drama and Culture in the 1960s: The Return of the Gods. Edited by David G. Goodman. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1988.

The 24:53 Train Bound for * Tower Is Waiting in Front of that Cheap Donut Shop in Takebaya. Translated by M. Cody Poulton. In The New Columbia Anthology of Modern Japanese Literature. Edited by J. Thomas Rimer. New York: Columbia University Press, 2004.

Two Women. (Futari no onna, 1978). Translated by John K. Gillespie. In Alternative Japanese Drama. Edited by Robert T. Rolf and John K. Gillespie. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 1992.

The Virgin Mask. (Shōjo kamen, 1969). Translated by John K. Gillespie and Paul H. Krieger. In Alternative Japanese Drama. Edited by Robert T. Rolf and John K. Gillespie. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 1992.

Kawamura Takeshi (1959–)

The Lost Babylon. (Lost Babylon, 1999). Translated by Sara Jansen. TDR. Vol. 44, no. 1 (Spring 2000). [End Page 188]

Nippon Wars (Nippon Uoōzu, 1990). Translated by Leon Ingulsrud and Kawai Shōichirō. In Half a Century of Japanese Theatre IV, 1980s Part 2. Edited by Japan Playwrights Association. Tokyo: Kinokuniya, 2002.

Kikuchi Kan (1888–1948) [A.K.A. Kikuchi Kwan]

Better than Revenge. (Katakiuchi ijō, 19**). Translated by Glenn W. Shaw. In Tōjōrō's Love and Four Other Plays by Kikuchi Kwan. Edited by Glenn Shaw. Tokyo: Hokuseido, 1925.

The Father Returns. (Chichi kaeru, 1920). Translated by Glenn W. Shaw. In Tōjōrō's Love and Four Other Plays by Kikuchi Kwan. Edited by Glenn W. Shaw. Tokyo: Hokuseido, 1925.

The Madman on the Roof. (Okujō no kyōjin, 1916).

[1] (As The Housetop Madman) Translated by Glenn W. Shaw. In Tōjōrō's Love and Four Other Plays by Kikuchi Kwan. Edited by Glenn Shaw. Tokyo: Hokuseido, 1925.

[2] Translated by Iwasaki Yozan and Glenn Hughes. In Three Modern Japanese Plays. Edited by Yozan T. Iwasaki and Glenn Hughes. Great Neck: Core Collection Books 1976.

[3] Translated by Yozan T. Iwasaki and Glenn Hughes. In Modern Japanese Literature. Edited by Donald Keene. New York: Grove Press, 1956.

The Miracle. (Kiseki, 19**). Translated by Glenn W. Shaw. In Tōjōrō's Love and Four Other Plays by Kikuchi Kwan. Edited by Glenn Shaw. Tokyo: Hokuseido, 1925.

The Savior of the Moment. (***, 19**). Translated by Hidaka Noboru. In The Passion by S. Mushakoji and Three Other Japanese Plays. Honolulu: Oriental Literature Society, 1933. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1971.

Tōjōrō's Love. (Tōjōrō no koi, 1919). Translated by Glenn W. Shaw. In Tōjōrō's Love and Four Other Plays by Kikuchi Kwan. Edited by Glenn Shaw. Tokyo: Hokuseido, 1925.

Kinoshita Junji (1914–)

Between God and Man. (Kami to hito to no aida, 1970). Translated by Eric Gangloff. Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press, 1979.

Requiem on the Great Meridian. (Shigosen no matsuri, 1978). Translated by Brian Powell and Jason Daniel. In Requiem on the Great Meridian and Selected Essays. Tokyo: Nanundo, 2000.

Twilight Crane. (Yōzuru, 1949).

[1] Translated by Kurahashi Takeshi (as Twilight of a Crane: One Act). Tokyo: Miraisha, 1952.

[2] Translated by A. C. Scott. In Playbook. New York: New Directions, 1956.

Kisaragi Koharu (1956–2000)

MORAL. (MORAL, 1987). Translated by Tsuneda Keiko and Colleen Lanki. Asian Theatre Journal, Vol. 21, no. 2 (Fall 2004).

Kishida Kunio (1890–1954)

Adoration. (Nyonin katsugō, 1949).

[1] Translated by Richard McKinnon. In Five Plays by Kishida Kunio. [End Page 189] Edited by David G. Goodman. Ithaca, NY: Cornell East Asia Program, 1989.

[2] Translated by Richard McKinnon. The Literary Review. Autumn 1962.

Cloudburst. (Shōu, 1926). Translated by Richard McKinnon. In Five Plays by Kishida Kunio. Edited by David G. Goodman. Ithaca, NY: Cornell East Asia Program, 1989.

A Diary of Fallen Leaves. (Ochiba nikki, 1927). Translated by David Goodman and J. Thomas Rimer. In Five Plays by Kishida Kunio. Edited by David G. Goodman. Ithaca, NY: Cornell East Asia Program, 1989.

It Will Be Fine Tomorrow. (Ashita wa tenki, 1928). Translated by Eiji Ukai and Eric Bell. In Eminent Authors of Contemporary Japan Volume 2. Tokyo: Kaitakusha, 1931.

Love Phobia. (Renai kyōfu-byō, 1927). Translated by Masako Yuasa. In Kishida Kunio: Three Plays. Leeds: Alumnus, 1994.

New Cherry Leaves. (Hazakura, 1927). Translated by Masako Yuasa. In Kishida Kunio: Three Plays. Leeds: Alumnus, 1994.

Paper Balloon. (Kami fōsen, 1926).

[1] Translated by Richard McKinnon. In Five Plays by Kishida Kunio. Edited by David G. Goodman. Ithaca, NY: Cornell East Asia Program, 1989.

[2] Translated by Masako Yuasa. In Kishida Kunio: Three Plays. Leeds: Alumnus, 1994.

Roof Garden. (Okujō teien, 1926).

[1] Translated by Hidaka Noboru. In The Passion by S. Mushakoji and Three Other Japanese Plays. Honolulu: Oriental Literature Society, 1933. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1971.

[2] Translated by Yamada Kazuo. In The Roof Garden and Other One-Act Plays. Edited by Yamada Kazuo. Tokyo: Shijo Shobō, 1934.

The Swing. (Buranko, 1925).

[1] Translated by J. Thomas Rimer. In Pilgrimages: Aspects of Japanese Literature and Culture. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 1988.

[2] Translated by David G. Goodman. In The New Columbia Anthology of Modern Japanese Literature Edited by J. Thomas Rimer. New York: Columbia University Press, 2004.

The Two Daughters of Mr. Sawa. (Sawa-shi no futari musume, 1935) Translated by David G. Goodman. In Five Plays by Kishida Kunio. Edited by David G. Goodman. Ithaca, NY: Cornell East Asia Program, 1989.

Kishida Rio (1950–2003)

Thread Hell. (Ito Jigoku, 1984). Translated by Carol Fisher Sorgenfrei and Tonooka Naomi. In Half a Century of Japanese Theatre IV, 1980s Part 2. Edited by Japan Playwrights Association. Tokyo: Kinokuniya, 2002.

Kitamura Sō (1952–)

Ode to Joy. (Ode to Joy: Eiyaku Hogiuta, 1989).Translated by Mitachi Riho. In Half a Century of Japanese Theatre IV, 1980s Part 2. Edited by Japan Playwrights Association. Tokyo: Kinokuniya, 2002. [End Page 190]

Kitani Shigeo (1923–)

A Volcanic Island: The Sound Night. (Kazantō, 1970). Translated by Andrew T. Tsubaki. Tokyo: Teatro, 1971.

Kōkami Shōji (1958–)

The Angels with Closed Eyes. (Tenshi wa hitomi otojite, 1991). Tokyo: Hakusuisha, 1991.

Lullaby: A Hundred Years of Song. (Rarabai: matawa hyakunen no komori-uta, 2000). Translated by Mari Boyd. In Half a Century of Japanese Theater Volume III: 1980s Part 1. Edited by Japan Playwrights Association. Tokyo: Kinokuniya, 2001.

Komatsu Mikio (1941–)

Mystery Tour. (Ame no wanmankō, 1976). Translated by Daniel Gallimore. In Half a Century of Japanese Theater V: 1970s. Edited by Japan Playwrights Association. Tokyo: Kinokuniya, 2003.

Kubo Sakae (1900–1958)

The Land of Volcanic Ash. (Kazanbaichi, 1937–1938). Translated by David G. Goodman. Ithaca, NY: Cornell East Asia Program, 1986. Rev. ed. 1993.

Kurata Hyakuzō (1891–1943)

The Priest and His Disciples. (Shukke to sono deshi, 1916). Translated by Glenn W. Shaw. Tokyo: Hokuseidō, 1922.

Shunkan. (Shunkan, 1925). Translated by Andō Kan'ichi. Tokyo: Kenkyōsha, 1925.

Makino Nozomi (1959–)

Tokyo Atomic Klub. (Genshikaku kurabu, 1997). Translated by John D. Swain. In Half a Century of Japanese Theater Volume I: 1990s Part 1. Edited by Japan Playwrights Association. Tokyo: Kinokuniya, 1999.

Matsuda Masataka (1962–)

Cape Moon. (Tsuki no misaki, 1997). Translated by Mari Boyd. In Half a Century of Japanese Theater Volume II: 1990s Part 2. Edited by Japan Playwrights Association. Tokyo: Kinokuniya, 2000.

Mayama Seika (1878–1948)

Death of Yoritomo. (Yoritomo no shi, 1932).

[1] Translated by Caroline Powers. In You Mean to Say You Still Don't Know Who We Are?. Edited by Unno Mitsuko. Ashiya: Personally Oriented, 1976.

[2] Translated by Brian Powell. Asian Theatre Journal vol. 17, no. 1 (Spring 2000).

Genboku and Chōei. (Genboku to Chōei, 1924). Translated by Brian Powell. Nissan Occasional Papers Series, no. 26, 1996.

Mishima Yukio (1925–1970)

Black Lizard. (Kuro Tokage, 1962). Translated by Mark Oshima. Mishima on Stage: The Black Lizard and Other Plays. Edited by Laurence Kominz. Ann Arbor: Center for Japanese Studies, 2005.

A Blush on the White Hibiscus Blossom: Lady Fuyo and the True Account of the Ouchi Clan. (Fuyo no Tsuyu Ouchi Jikka, 1955). Translated by Mark Oshima. [End Page 191] Mishima on Stage: The Black Lizard and Other Plays. Edited by Laurence Kominz. Ann Arbor: Center for Japanese Studies, 2005.

Busu. (Busu, 1957). Translated by Laurence Kominz and Donald Keene. In Mishima on Stage: The Black Lizard and Other Plays. Edited by Laurence Kominz. Ann Arbor, MI: Center for Japanese Studies, 2005.

The Damask Drum. (Aya no tsuzumi , 1955). In Five Modern Nō Plays. Ed. and Translated by Donald Keene. Tokyo: Charles E. Tuttle, 1967.

The Decline and Fall of the Suzaku. (Suzaku-ke no metsubō, 1967). Translated by Hiroaki Sato. In My Friend Hitler and Other Plays of Yukio Mishima. New York: Columbia University Press, 2002.

Dōjōji. (Dōjōji, 1957). Translated by Donald Keene. In Death in Midsummer by Mishima Yukio. New York: New Directions, 1966.

Hanjo. (Hanjo, 1952). Five Modern Nō Plays. Ed. and trans. Donald Keene. Tokyo: Charles E. Tuttle, 1967.

Hell Screen. (Jigokuhen, 1953). Translated by Laurence Kominz. Mishima on Stage: The Black Lizard and Other Plays. Edited by Laurence Kominz. Ann Arbor, MI: Center for Japanese Studies, 2005.

Kantan. (Kantan, 1950). Five Modern Nō Plays. Ed. and trans. Donald Keene. Tokyo: Charles E. Tuttle, 1967.

The Lady Aoi. (Aoi no Uye, 1954). Five Modern Nō Plays. Ed. and trans. Donald Keene. Tokyo: Charles E. Tuttle, 1967.

The Lighthouse. (Tōdai, 1949). Translated by Laurence Kominz. Mishima on Stage: The Black Lizard and Other Plays. Edited by Laurence Kominz. Ann Arbor: Center for Japanese Studies, 2005.

Madame de Sade. (Sado Kōshaku Fujin, 1965). Translated by Donald Keene. New York: Grove, 1967.

My Friend Hitler. (Waga tomo Hittorō, 1968).

[1] Translated by Hiroaki Sato. St. Andrews Review. IV. 3–4. 1977–8.

[2] Translated by Hiroaki Sato. In My Friend Hitler and Other Plays of Yukio Mishima. New York: Columbia University Press, 2002.

The Rokumeikan. (Rokumeikan, 1956). Trans. Hiroaki Sato. In My Friend Hitler and Other Plays of Yukio Mishima. New York: Columbia University Press, 2002.

The Sardine Seller's Net of Love. (Iwashiuri Koi no Hikiami, 1954). Translated by Laurence Kominz. Mishima on Stage: The Black Lizard and Other Plays. Edited by Laurence Kominz. Ann Arbor: Center for Japanese Studies, 2005.

Sash Stealing Pond. (Musume Gonomi Obitori no Ike, 1958). Translated by Laurence Kominz. Mishima on Stage: The Black Lizard and Other Plays. Edited by Laurence Kominz. Ann Arbor: Center for Japanese Studies, 2005.

Sotoba Komachi. (Sotoba Komachi, 1952).

[1] As "A Modern Noh Play: Sotoba Komiachi." Translated by Donald Keene. Virginia Quarterly Review, Spring 1957.

[2] In Five Modern Nō Plays. Edited and translated by Donald Keene. Tokyo: Charles E. Tuttle, 1967. [End Page 192]

Steeplechase. (Daishōgai, 1956). Translated by Laurence Kominz. Mishima on Stage: The Black Lizard and Other Plays. Edited by Laurence Kominz. Ann Arbor, MI: Center for Japanese Studies, 2005.

The Terrace of the Leper King. (Raiō no Terasu, 1969). Trans. Hiroaki Sato. In My Friend Hitler and Other Plays of Yukio Mishima. New York: Columbia University Press, 2002.

Tropical Tree. (Nettaiju, 1959). Translated by Kenneth Strong. Japan Quarterly, Vol. XI, no. 2,1964: 174–210.

Twilight Sunflower. (Yoru no himawari, 1958). Translated by Sinozaki Sigeho and Virgil A. Warren. Tokyo: Hokuseidō, 1958.

A Wonder Tale: The Moonbow. (Chinsetsu Yumiharizuki, 1969). Trans. Hiroaki Sato. In My Friend Hitler and Other Plays of Yukio Mishima. New York: Columbia University Press, 2002.

Yoroboshi: The Blind Young Man. (Yoroboshi, 1965). Translated by Ted T. Takaya. In Modern Japanese Drama: An Anthology. Edited by Ted T. Takaya. New York: Columbia University Press, 1979.

Yuya. (Yuya, 1959). Translated by Laurence Kominz and Jonah Salz. Mishima on Stage: The Black Lizard and Other Plays. Edited by Laurence Kominz. Ann Arbor: Center for Japanese Studies, 2005.

Miyazawa Akio (1956–)

Hinemi. (Hinemi, 1992). Translated by John D. Swain. In Half a Century of Japanese Theatre Volume II: 1990s Part 2. Edited by Japan Playwrights Association. Tokyo: Kinokuniya, 2000.

Murai Shimako (1928–)

Woman of Hiroshima. (Hiroshima no onna, vols. 1–3, 1985?). Tokyo: Japan Foreign Rights Center, 19**.

Mushakōji Saneatsu (1885–1976)

Bodhidharma. (Bōdhidharma, 19**). Translated by Hirano Umeyo. In Buddhist Plays from Japanese Literature. Tokyo: CIIB, 1962.

A Family Affair. (Aru Katei, 1909). Translated by Yozan T. Iwasaki and Glenn Hughes. In New Plays from Japan. London: Ernest Benn Limited, 1930.

I Don't Know Either. (Watashi mo shiranai, 1933). Translated by Hirano Umeyo. In Buddhist Plays from Japanese Literature. Tokyo: CIIB, 1962.

The Man of the Flowers. (***, 19**). Translated by Jun'ichi Natori. In Two Fables of Japan Dramatized by Saneatsu Mushakoji. Tokyo: Hokuseido, 1957.

Monk Ikkyu. (Aru hi no Ikkyō oshō, 1913). Translated by Hirano Umeyo. In Buddhist Plays from Japanese Literature. Tokyo: CIIB, 1962.

The Passion. (Aiyoku, 1926). Translated by Hidaka Noboru. In The Passion by S.Mushakoji and Three Other Japanese Plays. Honolulu: Oriental Literature Society, 1933. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1971.

The Rabbit's Revenge. (Bokuryō Chōshingura, 1941). Translated by Jun'ichi Natori. In Two Fables of Japan Dramatized by Saneatsu Mushakoji. Tokyo: Hokuseido, 1957.

Nagai Ai (1951–)

The Three Hagi Sisters. (Hagike no san shimai, 2000). Translated by Loren Edelson. Asian Theatre Journal. Vol 21, no. 1, Spring 2004: 1–98. [End Page 193]

Time's Storeroom. (Toki no monooki, 1994). Translated by David H. Shapiro. In Half a Century of Japanese Theater Volume I: 1990s Part 1. Edited by Japan Playwrights Association. Tokyo: Kinokuniya, 1999.

Nakamura Kichizō (1877–1941)

The Death of Ii Tairo. (Ii Tairō no shi, 1920). Translated by Mock Joya. Tokyo: Japan Times, 1927.

The Razor. (Kamisori, 1914). Translated by Iwasaki Yozan and Glenn Hughes. In Three Modern Japanese Plays. Edited by Yozan T. Iwasaki and Glenn Hughes. Great Neck: Core Collection Books 1976.

Narui Yutaka (1961–)

Farewell to Huckleberry. (Hakkuruberii ni sayonara wo, 1991). Translated by David H. Shapiro. In Half a Century of Japanese Theater Volume II: 1990s Part 2. Edited by Japan Playwrights Association. Tokyo: Kinokuniya, 2000.

Noda Hideki (1955–)

The Red Demon Akaoni. (Akaoni, 1996). Translated by Roger Pulvers. In Half a Century of Japanese Theatre IV, 1980s Part 2. Edited by Japan Playwrights Association. Tokyo: Kinokuniya, 2002.

Nukada Roppuku (1890–1948)

Dai-Nanko: An Historic Drama in One Act and Three Scenes. (Dai Nankō, 19**). Translated by Glenn W. Shaw. Cultural Nippon, vol. 7, 1939.

Öhashi Yasuhiko (1956–)

Godzilla. (Gojira, 1987).

[1] Translated by John K. Gillespie. In Half a Century of Japanese Theater Volume III: 1980s Part 1. Edited by Japan Playwrights Association. Tokyo: Kinokuniya, 2001.

[2] Translated by M. Cody Poulton. Winnipeg: Scirocco Drama, 2002.

Okabe Kōdai (1945–)

Ayako: Mom's Cherry Blossoms Never Fall. (Ayako: Haha no sakura wa chiranai sakura, 1988). Translated by Don Kenny. In Half a Century of Japanese Theater V:1970s. Edited by Japan Playwrights Association. Tokyo: Kinokuniya,2003.

Okamoto Kidō (1872–1932)

The American Envoy. (Amerika no tsukai, 1909). Translated by Masanao Inouye. Kobe: J. L. Thompson & Co. 1931.

Banchō Sarayashiki. (Banchō Sarayashiki, 1916). Translated by Linda Hoaglund. In You Mean to Say You Still Don't Know Who We Are? Edited by Unno Mitsuko. Ashiya: Personally Oriented, 1976.

The Human Pillar. (Nagara no hitobashira, 1913). Translated by Zoe Kinkaid and Hanso Tarao. New York: Samuel French, 1928.

Lady Hosokawa. (Hosokawa tada-oki no tsuma, 19**). Translated by Asataro Miyamori. In Tales of the Samurai and "Lady Hosokawa" by Asataro Miyamori. Yokohama: Kelly & Walsh, Limited, 1922.

The Mask Maker. (Shuzenji monogatari, 1911). Translated by Zoe Kinkaid and Hanso Tarao. New York: Samuel French, 1928.

A Tale of Shuzenji. (Shuzenji monogatari, 1911). Translated by John Trumbull, et al. In You Mean to Say You Still Don't Know Who We Are? Edited by Unno Mitsuko. Ashiya: Personally Oriented, 1976. [End Page 194]

Ota Shogo (1939–)

Sarachi. (Sarachi, 1992). Translated by Robert T. Rolf. In Asian Theatre Journal. Vol. 10, no. 2 (Fall 1993).

The Tale of Komachi Told by the Wind. (Komachi fōden, 1977). Translated by Mari Boyd. In Half a Century of Japanese Theatre: Volume VI 1960s, Part 1. Edited by Japan Playwrights Association. Tokyo: Kinokuniya, 2004.

The Water Station. (Mizu no eki, 1981). Translated by Mari Boyd. In Asian Theatre Journal. Vol. 7, no. 2 (Fall 1990).

Saitō Ren (1940–)

Red Dawn over Manhattan. (Akatsuki no Manhattan, 1993). Translated by David G. Goodman. In Half a Century of Japanese Theatre: Volume VI, 1960s Part 1. Edited by Japan Playwrights Association. Tokyo: Kinokuniya, 2004.

Red Eyes. (Akame, 196*). In Concerned Theatre Japan. Vol. 2, no. 1 & 2 (1971).

Sakate Yōji (1962–)

Epitaph for the Whales. (Kujira no bohyō, 1993). Translated by Yuasa Masako. In Half a Century of Japanese Theater Volume I: 1990s Part 1. Edited by Japan Playwrights Association. Tokyo: Kinokuniya, 1999.

Satoh Makoto (1943–)

Abe Sada's Dogs. (Abe Sada no inu, 1975). Translated by Don Kenny. In Half a Century of Japanese Theatre: Volume VI, 1960s, Part 1. Edited by Japan Playwrights Association. Tokyo: Kinokuniya, 2004.

Ismene. (Ismene, 1966). In Alternative Japanese Drama. Edited by Robert T. Rolf and John K. Gillespie. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 1992.

My Beatles. (Atashi no Beatles, 1967). Translated by David G. Goodman. In Japanese Drama and Culture in the 1960s: The Return of the Gods. Edited by David G. Goodman. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1988.

Nezumi Kozō: The Rat. (Nezumi Kozō jirokihi, 1969). Translated by David G. Goodman.

[1] In Concerned Theatre Japan. Vol. 1, no. 1 (Spring 1970): 75–134.

[2] In After Apocalypse: Four Japanese Plays of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. New York: Columbia University Press, 1986. Rev. ed. Ithaca, NY: Cornell East Asia Program, 1994.

Satoh Makoto, Yamamoto Kiyokazu (1939–), Katō Tadashi (1942–), and Saitō Ren (1940–)

The Dance of Angels Who Burn Their Own Wings. (Tsubasa o moyasu tenshi-tachi no butō, 1970). Translated by David G. Goodman.

[1] In Concerned Theatre Japan. Vol. 1, no. 4, (Winter 1970/Spring 1971): 53–118.

[2] In Japanese Drama and Culture in the 1960s: The Return of the Gods. Edited by David G. Goodman. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe, 1988.

Shimizu Kunio (1936–)

The Dressing Room. (Gakuya, 1977). Translated by John K. Gillespie and Adapted by Chiori Miyagawa. In Alternative Japanese Drama. Edited by Robert T. Rolf and John K. Gillespie. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 1992.

An Older Sister, Burning Like a Flame. (Hi no yō ni samishii ane ga ite, 1978). Translated [End Page 195] by J. Thomas Rimer. In Asian Theatre Journal. Vol. 16. no. 1. (Spring 1999).

The Sand of Youth, How Quickly. (Seishun no suna no nanto hayaku, 1980). Translated by Robert T. Rolf. In Alternative Japanese Drama. Edited by Robert T. Rolf and John K. Gillespie. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 1992.

Tango at the End of Winter. (Tango: fuyu no awari ni, 1984). Adapted by Peter Barnes. London: Amber Lane Press, 1991.

Those Days: A Lyrical Hypothesis on Time and Forgetting. (Ano hitachi, 1966). Translated by John K. Gillespie. In Alternative Japanese Drama. Edited by Robert T. Rolf and John K. Gillespie. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 1992.

Suzue Toshirō (1963–)

Fireflies. (Kami wo kakiageru, 1995). Translated by David G. Goodman. In Half a Century of Japanese Theater Volume I: 1990s Part 1. Edited by Japan Playwrights Association. Tokyo: Kinokuniya, 1999.

Suzuki Sensaburo (1893–1924)

Burning Her Alive. (***, 1921). Translated by Yozan T. Iwasaki and Glenn Hughes. In New Plays from Japan. London: Ernest Benn Limited, 1930.

Living Koheiji. (Ikiteiru Koheji, 1925). Translated by Hidaka Noboru. In The Passion by S. Mushakoji and Three Other Japanese Plays. Honolulu: Oriental Literature Society, 1933. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1971.

Suzuki Tadashi (1939–)

Clytemnestra. In The Way of Acting. Translated by J. Thomas Rimer. New York: Theatre Communications Group, 1986.

Takeuchi Jōichirō (1947–)

Claire de Lune. (Tsuki no hikari, 1995). Translated by M. Cody Poulton. In Half a Century of Japanese Theater V: 1970s. Edited by Japan Playwrights Association. Tokyo: Kinokuniya, 2003.

Tanaka Chikao (1905–1995)

The Edge of a Cloud. (Kumo no hatate, 1946). Translated by Noah S. Brannen. Japan Christian Quarterly. Vol. 44, no. 4 (1978).

The Head of Mary. (Maria no kubi, 1959). Translated by David G. Goodman. In After Apocalypse: Four Japanese Plays of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. New York: Columbia University Press, 1986. Rev. ed. Ithaca, NY: Cornell East Asia Program, 1994.

Tanizaki Jun-ichirō (1886–1965)

The Man with the Mandolin. (Madorin-o hiku otoko, 1925). Translated by Donald Keene. New Directions 24. New York: New Directions, 1972.

Okuni and Gohei. (Okuni to Gohei, 1921).

[1] Translated by Eric S. Bell and Yoshinobu Tada. In Eminent Authors of Contemporary Japan Volume Two. Edited by Eric S. Bell and Ukai Eiji. 2 vols. Tokyo: Kaitakusha, 1930.

[2] Translated by John Gillespie. In The New Columbia Anthology of Modern Japanese Literature. Edited by J. Thomas Rimer. New York: Columbia University Press, 2004. [End Page 196]

The White Fox. (Byakko no yu, 19**). Translated by Endo Haruo and Eric S. Bell. In Eminent Authors of Contemporary Japan Volume One. Edited by Eric S. Bell and Ukai Eiji. 2 vols. Tokyo: Kaitakusha, 1930.

Terayama Shūji (1935–1983)

Directions to Servant. (Nuhikun, 1978). Translated by Tony Raynes and Nishiguchi Shigenobu. In. Experiencing Theatre. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, 1984.

Heretics. (Jashōmon, 1971). Translated by Carol Fisher Sorgenfrei. In Unspeakable Acts: The Theatre of Terayama Shūji and Postwar Japan by Carol Fisher Sorgenfrei. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 2005.

The Hunchback of Aomori. (Aomori-ken no semushi otoko, 1967). Translated by Carol Fisher Sorgenfrei. In Unspeakable Acts: The Theatre of Terayama Shūji and Postwar Japan, by Carol Fisher Sorgenfrei. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 2005.

Inugami: A Play for Masks in One Act. (Inugami, 1969). Translated by Carol Fisher Sorgenfrei. In Asian Theatre Journal. Vol. 11, no. 2 (Fall 1994).

La Marie Vison. (Kegawa no Marō, 1967).

[1] Translated by Carol Fisher Sorgenfrei. In Half a Century of Japanese Theatre Volume 6: 1960s, Part 1. Edited by the Japan Playwrights Association. Tokyo: Kinokuniya, 2004.

[2] Revised version, 1970, for La Mama Production, New York. Translated by Don Kenny. In Unspeakable Acts: The Theatre of Terayama Shūji and Postwar Japan, by Carol Fisher Sorgenfrei. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 2005.

Terayama Shūji (1935–1983) and Kishida Rio (1950–2003)

Knock: Street Theatre. (Knock, 1975). Translated by Robert T. Rolf. In Alternative Japanese Drama. Edited by Robert T. Rolf and John K. Gillespie. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 1992.

Tsubouchi Shōyō (1859–1935)

A Sinking Moon over the Lonely Castle Where the Cuckoo Cries. (Hototogisu Kojō Rakugetsu, 1905). Translated by J. Thomas Rimer. Kabuki Plays on Stage Volume 4: Restoration and Reform, 1872–1905. Edited by James R. Brandon and Samuel L. Leiter. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 2003.

Urashima: A Drama of the New Style. (Shinkyoku Urashima, 1905). Translated by Furusawa Kwanshō. Urawa: Furusawa, 1936.

Tsuka Kōhei (1948–)

The Atami Murder Case. (Atami satsujin jiken, 1973). Translated by Leon Ingulsrud. In Half a Century of Japanese Theater V: 1970s. Edited by Japan Playwrights Association. Tokyo: Kinokuniya, 2003.

Watanabe Eriko (1955–)

Kitarō the Ghost-buster. (Gegege no ge: ōma ga toki ni yureru buranko, 1982). Translated by Sue Herbert. In Half a Century of Japanese Theater Volume III: 1980s Part 1. Edited by the Japan Playwrights Association. Tokyo: Kinokuniya, 2001.

Yamamoto Yōzō (1887–1974)

A Case of Child Murder. (Eijigoroshi, 1920). Translated by Eric S. Bell and Tada [End Page 197] Yoshinobu. In Eminent Authors of Contemporary Japan Volume One. Edited by Eric S. Bell and Ukai Eiji. 2 vols. Tokyo: Kaitakusha, 1930.

Chink Okichi. (Nyonin aishi, Tōjin Okichi monogatari, 1929). Translated by Glenn W. Shaw. In Three Plays. Tokyo: Hokuseido, 1957.

The Crown of Life. (Seimei no kammuri, 1920). Translated by Glenn W. Shaw. In Three Plays. Tokyo: Hokuseido, 1957.

Lord Dewa. (Sakazaki Dewa no kami, 1921). Translated by Glenn W. Shaw. In Three Plays. Tokyo: Hokuseido, 1957.

Yamazaki Masakazu (1934–)

The Boat is a Sailboat. (Fune wa hobune yo, 1973). Translated by Ted T. Takaya. In Modern Japanese Drama: An Anthology. Edited by Ted T. Takaya. New York: Columbia University Press, 1979.

Sanetomo. (Sanetomo shuppan, 1973). Translated by J. Thomas Rimer. Mask and Sword: Two Plays for the Contemporary Japanese Theatre. New York: Columbia University Press, 1980.

Zeami. (Zeami, 1964). Translated by J. Thomas Rimer. Mask and Sword: Two Plays for the Contemporary Japanese Theatre. New York: Columbia University Press, 1980.

Yamazaki Tetsu (1947–)

The Family Adrift: The Jesus Ark Incident. (Hyōryō kazoku: Iesu no hakobune, 1979). Translated by Mari Boyd. In Half a Century of Japanese Theater V: 1970s. Edited by Japan Playwrights Association. Tokyo: Kinokuniya, 2003.

Yashiro Seiichi (1927–1998)

Hokusai Sketchbooks. (Hokusai manga, 1973). Translated by Ted T. Takaya. In Modern Japanese Drama: An Anthology. Edited by Ted T. Takaya. New York: Columbia University Press, 1979.

Yokomitsu Riichi (1898–1947)

The Curtain Would Not Draw. (Shimaranu kōten, 19**). Translated by Yamada Kazuo. In The Roof Garden and Other One-Act Plays. Edited by Yamada Kazuo. Tokyo: Shijo Shobō, 1934.

Yokouchi Kensuke (1961–)

The King of La Mancha's Clothes. (Gusha niwa mienai Ra Mancha no ōsama no hadaka: yokouchi yensuke gikyoku-shō, 1991). Translated by J. Thomas Rimer. In Half a Century of Japanese Theater Volume III: 1980s Part 1. Edited by Japan Playwrights Association. Tokyo: Kinokuniya, 2001

Yū Miri (1968–)

Festival for the Fish. (Uo no matsuri, 1992). Translated by Yuasa Masako. In Half a Century of Japanese Theater Volume II: 1990s Part 2. Edited by Japan Playwrights Association. Tokyo: Kinokuniya, 2000.

Anthologies/Collections of Plays

Abe Kōbō. Three Plays by Kōbō Abe. Translated by Donald Keene. New York: Columbia University Press, 1993. [Contains: Involuntary Homicide, The Green Stockings, and The Ghost Is Here.]

Bell, Eric S., and Eiji Ukai. Eminent Authors of Contemporary Japan. 2 vols. Tokyo: Kaitakusha, 1930. [Volume 1 contains: The White Fox / Tanizaki Junichiro; [End Page 198] A Case of Child Murder / Yamamoto Yuzo, and five short stories. Volume 2 contains: Okuni and Gohei / Tanizaki Junichiro; It Will Be Fine Tomorrow / Kishida Kunio; and six short stories.]

Goodman, David G., ed. After Apocalypse: Four Japanese Plays of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. New York: Columbia University Press, 1986. Rev. ed. Ithaca, NY: Cornell East Asia Program, 1994. [Contains: The Island / Hotta Kiyomi; Elephant / Betsuyaku Minoru; The Head of Mary / Tanaka Chikao; and Nezumi Kozō: The Rat / Satoh Makoto.]

———, ed. Japanese Drama and Culture in the 1960s: The Return of the Gods. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, Inc., 1988. [Contains: Find Hakamadare! / Fukuda Yoshiyuki; Kaison the Priest of Hitachi / Akimoto Matsuyo; My Beatles / Satoh Makoto; John Silver: The Beggar of Love / Kara Jōrō; and The Dance of Angels Who Burn Their Own Wings / Satoh Makoto, Yamamoto Kiyokazu, Katō, and Saitō Ren.]

Hamada Zenya. Genius: Six Plays. London: Blackheath, 1991. [Contains: Goya, Picasso, Shakespeare, Van Gogh, Mozart, Jesus Christ.]

Hidaka Noboru, ed. and trans. The Passion by S. Mushakoji and Three Other Japanese Plays. Honolulu: Oriental Literature Society, 1933. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1971. [Contains: The Roof Garden / Kishida Kunio; Living Koheji / Suzuki Sensaburo; The Savior of the Moment / Kikuchi Kan; and The Passion / Mushakoji Saneatsu.]

Hirano Umeyo, trans. and ed. Buddhist Plays from Japanese Literature. Tokyo: CIIB: 1962. [Contains Bodhidharma, I Don't Know Either, and Monk Ikkyu / Mushakōji Saneatsu; and Seikuro of Yamato, Kobo Daishi, Tokudo Oda, and Myoe Shonin / Chigiri Kōsai.]

Iwasaki Yozan and Glenn Hughes, ed. and trans. Three Modern Japanese Plays. Great Neck: Core Collection Books, 1976. [Contains The Razor / Nakamura Kichizō; The Madman on the Roof / Kikuchi Kan; Nari-kin / Yozan T. Iwasaki.]

———. New Plays from Japan. London: Ernest Benn Limited, 1930. [Contains: Death / Arishima Takeo; A Family Affair / Mushakoji Saneatsu; and Burning Her Alive / Suzuki Senzaburo.]

Japan Playwrights Association. Half a Century of Japanese Theater Volume I: 1990s, Part 1. Tokyo: Kinokuniya, 1999. [Contains Citizens of Seoul / Hirata Oriza; Epitaph for the Whales / Sakate Yōji; Time's Storeroom / Nagai Ai; Fireflies / Suzue Toshirō; Tokyo Atomic Klub / Makino Nozomi; and Ice Blossoms / Kaneshita Tatsuo.]

———. Half a Century of Japanese Theater Volume II: 1990s, Part 2. Tokyo: Kinokuniya,

2000. [Contains The Man Next Door / Iwamatsu Ryō; Farewell to Huckleberry / Narui Yutaka; Festival for the Fish / Yō Miri; Hinemi / Miyazawa Akio; S/N / dumb type; Rhythm Method / Iijimi Sanae and Suzuki Yumi; and Cape Moon / Matsuda Masataka]

———. Half a Century of Japanese Theater Volume III: 1980s, Part 1. Tokyo: Kinokuniya, 2001. [Contains Kitarō the Ghost-buster / Watanabe Eriko; Miss Toyoko's Departure / Ichidō Rei; Godzilla / Öhashi Yasuhiko; The King of [End Page 199] La Mancha's Clothes / Yokouchi Kensuke; and Lullaby: A Hundred Years of Song / Kōkami Shōji.]

———. Half a Century of Japanese Theater Volume IV: 1980s, Part 2. Tokyo: Kinokuniya, 2002. [Contains Ode to Joy / Kitamura Sō; Nippon Wars / Kawamura Takeshi; A Legend of Mermaids / Chong Wishing; Thread Hell / Kishida Rio; and The Red Demon Akaoni / Noda Hideki.]

———. Half a Century of Japanese Theater Volume V: 1970s. Tokyo: Kinokuniya, 2003. [Contains The Amida Black Chant Murder Mystery / Fujita Den; The Atami Murder Case / Tsuka Kōhei; Mystery Tour / Komatsu Mikio; The Family Adrift: The Jesus Ark Incident / Yamazaki Tetsu; Ayako: Mom's Cherry Blossoms Never Fall / Okabe Kōdai; Claire de Lune / Takeuchi Jōichirō.]

———. Half a Century of Japanese Theatre Volume VI: 1960s, Part 1. Tokyo: Kinokuniya, 2004. [Contains La Marie Vision / Terayama Shūji; Sickness / Betsuyaku Minoru; Yabuhara: The Blind Master Minstrel / Inoue Hisashi; A Cry from the Virgin City / Kara Jōrō; The Tale of Komachi Told by the Wind / Öta Shōgo; Red Dawn Over Manhattan / Saitō Ren; Abe Sada's Dogs / Satoh Makoto.]

Kikuchi Kwan (Alt. transliteration for Kan). Tōjōrō's Love and Four Other Plays. Edited and Translated by Glenn W. Shaw. Tokyo: Hokuseido, 1925. [Contains: Tōjōrō's Love, Better than Revenge, The Housetop Madman, The Father Returns, and The Miracle.]

Kishida Kunio. Five Plays by Kishida Kunio. Edited by David Goodman. Ithaca, NY: Cornell East Asia Program, 1989. [Contains Adoration, Cloudburst, The Two Daughters of Mr. Sawa, Paper Balloon, and A Diary of Fallen Leaves.]

———. Kishida Kunio: Three Plays. Edited and Translated by Masako Yuasa. Leeds Alumnus, 1989. [Contains Paper Balloon, Love Phobia, and New Cherry Leaves.]

Mishima Yukio. Five Modern Nō Plays. Ed. and Trans. Donald Keene. New York: Knopf, 1957. Tokyo: Charles E. Tuttle, 1967. New York: Vintage, 1973. [Contains Sotoba Komachi, The Damask Drum, Kantan, The Lady Aoi, and Hanjo.]

———. Mishima on Stage: The Black Lizard and Other Plays. Ed. Laurence R. Kominz. Ann Arbor: Center for Japanese Studies, University of Michigan, 2005. [Contains: The Lighthouse, Hell Screen, The Sardine Seller's Net of Love, A Blush on the White Hibiscus Blossom, Steeplechase, Busu, Sash Stealing Pond, Yuya, The Black Lizard.]

———. My Friend Hitler and Other Plays of Yukio Mishima. Ed. and Trans. Hiroaki Sato. New York: Columbia University Press, 2002. [Contains: The Rokumeikon, The Decline and Fall of the Suzaku, My Friend Hitler, The Terrace of the Leper King, and A Wonder Tale: The Moonbow.]

Mushakōji Saneatsu. Two Fables of Japan Dramatized by Saneatsu Mushakoji. Trans. Jun'ichi Natori. Tokyo: Hokuseido, 1957. [Contains: The Man of the Flowers and The Rabbit's Revenge.]

Poulton, M. Cody. Spirits of Another Sort: The Plays of Izumi Kyōka. Ann Arbor: [End Page 200] University of Michigan Press, 2001. [Contains: Demon Pond, The Sea God's Villa, and The Castle Tower.]

Rimer, J. Thomas, ed. The New Columbia Anthology of Modern Japanese Literature. New York: Columbia University Press, 2004. [Contains: The Father Returns / Kikuchi Kan, The 23:54 Train Bound for * Tower is Waiting in Front of that Cheap Donut Shop in Takebaya / Kara Jōrō, The Swing / Kishida Kunio, Okuni and Gohei / Tanizaki Jun'ichirō.]

Rolf, Robert T. and John Gillispie, eds. Alternative Japanese Drama. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 1992. [Contains: The Little Match Girl, The Legend of Noon, and The Cherry in Bloom / Betsuyaku Minoru; The Sand of Youth, How Quickly, Those Days: A Lyrical Hypothesis on Time and Forgetting, and The Dressing Room: That Which Flows Away Ultimately Becomes Nostalgia / Shimizu Kunio; Knock: Street Theatre / Terayama Shōji and Kishida Rio; The Virgin's Mask and Two Women / Kara Jōrō; Ismene / Satoh Makoto.]

Sorgenfrei, Carol Fisher. Unspeakable Acts: The Theatre of Terayama Shūji and Postwar Japan. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 2005. [Contains: Heretics, The Hunchback of Aomori, and La Marie Vison (rev. ed.)]

Takaya, Ted. T. Modern Japanese Drama: An Anthology. New York: Columbia University Press, 1979. [Contains You, Too, Are Guilty / Abe Kōbō; Yoroboshi: The Blind Young Man / Mishima Yukio; Hokusai Sketchbooks / Yashiro Seiichi; and The Move / Betsuyaku Minoru.]

Yamamoto Yōzō. Three Plays. Translated by Glenn W. Shaw. Tokyo: Hokuseido, 1935. [Contains Lord Dewa; Chink Okichi; and Crown of Life.]

Yamazaki Masakazu. Mask and Sword: Two Plays for the Contemporary Japanese Theatre. Translated by J. Thomas Rimer. New York: Columbia University Press, 1980. [Contains Sanetomo and Zeami.]

Plays Available in a Single Volume

Abe Kobo. Friends. Translated by Donald Keene. Tokyo: Charles E. Tuttle, 1969.

———. The Man Who Turned into a Stick. Translated by Donald Keene. Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press, 1975.

Betsuyaku Minoru. The Story of the Two Knights Traveling Around the Country. Translated by Masako Yuasa. Leeds: Alumnus, 1990.

Endō Shōsaku. The Golden Country. Translated by Francis Mathy. Tokyo: Tuttle, 1970. Rev. ed. London: Peter Owen, 1989.

Iwamatsu Ryo. Futon and Daruma. Translated by Masako Yuasa. Leeds: Alumnus, 1992.

Kinoshita Junji. Between God and Man. Translated by Eric Gangloff. Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press, 1979.

Kubo Sakae. The Land of Volcanic Ash. Translated by David G. Goodman. Ithaca, NY: Cornell East Asia Program, 1986. Rev. Ed. 1993.

Mishima Yukio. Madame de Sade. Translated by Donald Keene. New York: Grove, 1967. [End Page 201]

Nakamura Kichizō. The Death of Ii Tairo. Translated by Mock Joya. Tokyo: Japan Times, 1927.

Öhashi Yasuhiko. Godzilla. Translated by M. Cody Poulton. Winnipeg: Scirocco Drama, 2002.

Okamoto Kidō. The American Envoy. Translated by Masanao Inouye. Kobe: J.L. Thompson & Co. 1931.

———. The Human Pillar. Translated by Zoe Kinkaid and Hanso Tarao. New York: Samuel French, 1928.

———. The Mask Maker. Translated by Zoe Kinkaid and Hanso Tarao. New York: Samuel French, 1928.

Appendix 1: Sample Intercultural Works by English-Language Playwrights Using Japanese Theatre Techiques and/or Source Material

Beichman, Janine. Drifting Fires: An American Nō. In Asian Theatre Journal. Vol. 3, no. 2 (Fall 1986): 233–260.

Kanin, Fay and Michael. Rashomon. New York: Samuel French, 1959. [Based on stories by Akutagawa Ryunosuke.]

Ferlita, Ernest. Two Cities. Quincy, MA: Baker's Plays, 1999. [Contains two plays, The Bells of Nagasaki, based on Nagasi Takashi's book, and The Mask of Hiroshima, both using techniques.]

Hall, Robin. Three Tales from Japan. Anchorage: Anchorage Press, 1973. [Three Japanese folktales are transformed into Children's theatre. Contains The Magic Fan, The Princess of the Sea, and Little Peach Boy.]

Masefield, John. The Faithful. New York: Macmillan Company, 1915.[A pseudo-Shakespearean adaptation of Kanadehon Chushingura from England's Poet Laureate.]

Sorgenfrei, Carol Fisher. The Imposter. In Contemporary Theatre Review: Japanese Theatre and the West. Vol. 1, no. 2 (1994): 203–218. [A cross-cultural kyōgen inspired by Moliere's Tartuffe.]

———. Medea: A Noh Cycle Based on the Greek Myth. New York: Samuel French, 1975. [A feminist retelling of the Greek myth using the form and structure of nō.]

Appendix 2: General Scholarly Works in English on Modern Japanese Theatre

Alain, Paul. 2003. The Art of Stillness: The Theatre Practice of Tadashi Suzuki. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Berlin, Zeke. 1991. "The Takarazuka Touch." Asian Theatre Journal 8 (1): 35–47.

Brandon, James R., ed. 1985. "Time and Tradition in Modern Japanese Theatre." Asian Theatre Journal 2 (1): 71–79.

———. 1993. The Cambridge Guide to Asian Theatre. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Davis, Carol, ed. 2002/2003. Mime Journal: Theatre East and West Revisited 22.

Goodman, David G. 1971. "New Japanese Theatre." The Drama Review 15 (3) [End Page 202] .

———. 1988a. Drama and Culture in the 1960s: The Return of the Gods. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, Inc.

———. 1988b. "Shingeki under the Occupation." The Occupation of Japan: Arts and Culture. Edited by Thomas W. Burkman. Norfolk: Douglas MacArthur Foundation.

Goto Yukihiro. 1989. "The Theatrical Fusion of Suzuki Tadashi." Asian Theatre Journal 6 (2): 103–123.

Hall, Robin. 1986. "Children's Theatre in Japan." Asian Theatre Journal. 3(1): 102–109.

Havens, T.R.H. 1982. Artist and Patron in Postwar Japan: Dance, Music, Theatre and the Visual Arts, 1955–1980. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Hirada Hiroko. 2000. Aspects of Post-war German ad Japanese Drama, 1945–1970: Reflections on War, Guilt and Responsibility. Lewiston: Edwin Mellen Press.

Horie-Webber, A. 1977. "Modernisation of the Japanese Theatre: The Shingeki Movement." Modern Japan: Aspects of History, Literature, and Society. Edited by W. G. Beasley. Berkeley: University of California Press.

———, ed. 1994. Contemporary Theatre Review: Japanese Theatre and the West. vol. 1, part 2. Yverdon: Harwood Academic Publishers.

Inoue Yoshie. 2003. "On Shimizu Kunio's Play: May Even Lunatics Die in Peace. Translated by Mari Boyd. Asian Theatre Journal 20 (1): 1–11.

Kan, Kikuchi. 1936. History and Trends of Modern Japanese Literature. Translated by S. Sakabe. Tokyo: Kokusai Bunka Shinkokai.

Kano, Ayako. 2001. Acting Like a Woman in Modern Japan: Theatre, Gender, Nationalism. New York: Palgrave.

Keene, Donald. 1964. "Realism and Unreality in Japanese Drama." Drama Survey. 3.

———.1999. Dawn to the West: A History of Japanese Literature Volume 4: Poetry, Drama, Criticism. Rev. ed. New York: Columbia University Press.

Komiya Toyotaka, ed. 1956. Japanese Music and Drama in the Meiji Era. Translated by Edward G. Seidensticker and Donald Keene. Tokyo: Öbunsha.

Kurahashi Takeshi 1958. "Western Drama in Japan—The Shingeki Movement." Japan Quarterly, 5.

Lee Sang-Kyong. 2000 "Edward Gordon Craig and Japanese Theatre." Asian Theatre Journal 17 (2): 215–236.

Martin, Carol. 2000. "Japanese Theatre: 1960s–Present." TDR: The Drama Review 44 (1).

Ortolani, Benito. 1963. "Shingeki: The Maturing New Drama of Japan." Studies in Japanese Culture. Edited by Joseph Roggendorf. Tokyo: Sophia University Press.

———. 1977. "Fukuda Tsuneari: Modernization and Shingeki." Tradition and Modernization in Japanese Culture. Edited by Donald H. Shivley. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Ottaviani, Gioia. 1994. "'Difference' and 'Reflexivity': Osanai Kaoru and the Shingeki Movement." Asian Theatre Journal. 11 (2): 213–230.

Poulton, M. Cody. 2001. Spirits of Another Sort: The Plays of Izumi Kyōka. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. [End Page 203]

Powell, Brian. 1975. "Japan's First Modern Theatre: The Tsukiji Shōgekijō and Its Company, 1924–26." Mounmenta Nipponica, 30 (1).

———. 1977. "Matsui Sumako: Actress and Woman." Modern Japan: Aspects of History, Literature, and Society. Edited by W. G. Beasley. Berkeley: University of California Press.

———. 1988. "A parable of the modern theatre in Japan: the debate between Osanai Kaoru and Mayama Seika, 1909," in Henny and Lehmann, eds., Themes and Theories in Modern Japanese History, Athlone Press.

———. 1990. Kabuki in Modern Japan: Mayama Seika and His Plays. New York: St. Martin's Press.

———. 1991a. "Taishō engeki and the dwindling masses." Japan Forum 3 (1).

———. 1991b. "Tsubouchi Shōyō (1859–1935): Sherborne and Japan, an episode in cross-cultural relations." Britain and Japan 1859–1991. Edited by H. Cortazzi and G. Daniels. London: Routledge.

———. 1994. "Mayama Seika and the history play in modern Japanese theatre." Europe and the Orient. Edited by A Gerstle and A Milner. Canberra: Humanities Research Centre, Australian National University.

———. 1995. "Theatre-going as homework: an aspect of modern Japanese theatre." Japanese Civilization in the Modern World, XI Amusement, Senri Ethnological Studies. no 40.

———. 1998. "One man's Hamlet in 1911 Japan: The Bungei Kyōkai production in the Imperial Theatre." Shakespeare and the Japanese Stage. Edited by Sasayama Takashi, J. R. Mulryne, Margaret Shewring. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

———. 2002a. "Communist kabuki: a contradiction in terms?" A Kabuki Reader, History and Performance. Edited by Samuel L Leiter. New York: M. E. Sharpe (reprint).

———. 2002b. Japan's Modern Theatre: A Century of Change and Continuity. London: Japan Library.

Pronko, Leonard C. 1984. Guide to Japanese Drama, 2nd ed. Boston: G. K. Hall.

Rimer, J. Thomas. 1976. Toward a Modern Japanese Theatre. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

———. 1976 "Four Plays by Tanaka Chikao." Monumenta Nipponica 31 (3). Robertson, Jennifer. 1989.

Butch and Femme on and off the Takarazuka Stage: Gender, Sexuality, and Social Organization in Japan. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press.

———. 1998. Takarazuka : Sexual Politics and Popular Culture in Modern Japan. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Rolf, Robert. 1988. "Out of the Sixties, Shimizu Kunio and Betsuyaku Minoru." Journal of the Yokohama National University. Sec. II, no. 35, October.

———. 1992. "Tokyo Theatre 1990." Asian Theatre Journal 9 (1): 85–111.

Rubin, Don, Chua Soo Pong, Ravi Chaturvedi, Ramendu Majumdar, Minoru Tanokura, and Katherine Brisbane, eds. 1998. The World Encyclopedia of Contemporary Theatre Volume 5: Asia/Pacific. London: Routledge.

Satō Toshihiko. 1962. "Ibsen Parallels in Modern Japanese Drama." Yearbook of Comparative Literature, XI. [End Page 204]

———. 1967 "Nakamura Kichizō's A Vicarage (1910) and Ibsen." Modern Drama 10 (February).

Scholz-Cionca, Stanca and Samuel L. Leiter, eds. 2001. Japanese Theatre and the International Stage. Leiden: Brill.

Senda Akihiko. 1997. The Voyage of Contemporary Japanese Theatre. Translated by J. Thomas Rimer. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press.

Sorgenfrei, Carol Fisher. 2005. Unspeakable Acts: The Theatre of Terayama Shōji and Postwar Japan. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press.

Takechi Tetsuji. 2003. "Artistic Direction in Takechi Kabuki." Translated by William Lee. Asian Theatre Journal 20 (1): 12–24.

Terasaki Hironori. 1984. "Trends in the Japanese Theatre World." Translated by Goto Yukihiro. Asian Theatre Journal. 1 (1): 104–108.

Tsuno Kaitarō. 1969. "Biwa and Beatles: An Invitation to Modern Japanese Theatre." Concerned Theatre Japan, Special Introductory Issue (October).

———. 1970. "Of Baths, Brothels and Hell." Concerned Theatre Japan 1 (1).

———. 1978. "The Tradition of Modern Theatre in Japan." Translated by David G.Goodman. The Canadian Theatre Review, (Fall).

Uchino Tadashi. 2000. "Images of Armageddon: Japan's 1980s Theatre Culture." TDR 44 (1).

Wetmore, Jr., Kevin J. 1998. "Dancing at the Shrine of Jesus: Christianity and Shingeki." Theatre Symposium: Crosscurrents in the Drama: East and West. Vol. 6. Edited by Stanley Vincent Longman. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press.



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ISSN
1527-2109
Print ISSN
0742-5457
Launched on MUSE
2006-04-12
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